Presentation on theme: "■Essential Question ■Essential Question: –How did problems in the Gilded Age contribute to “progressive” reforms in the early 20 th century? ■Warm-Up Question:"— Presentation transcript:
■Essential Question ■Essential Question: –How did problems in the Gilded Age contribute to “progressive” reforms in the early 20 th century? ■Warm-Up Question: –Use your notes & knowledge of U.S. history to create a list of problems that were created in the Gilded Age (1870-1900) –Consider: Cities, Government, the West & South, Business
■Progressives were people who wanted to strengthen American democracy and make life better for people. ■Most were Women
Urban Progressive Reformers ■Jane Addams’ Hull House in Chicago was a social service agency (called a settlement house) that provided help recent immigrants in English Language Legal Rights Home economics Basic Medical care
Urban Progressive Reformers ■Urban reformers tried to improve the lives of poor workers & children –YMCA created libraries & gyms for young men & children –The Salvation Army created soup kitchens & nurseries
Muckrakers ■Progressive reformers were aided by a new, investigative journalism: –Muckrakers journalists investigated and exposed political corruption, child labor, slum conditions, and other social issues
What did Ida Tarbell’s The History of Standard Oil (1904) expose? Ida Tarbell’s The History of Standard Oil (1904) revealed Rockefeller’s unfair business practices & contributed to the government breaking up monopolies
What did Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906) expose? Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906) Told the story of immigrant workers in the meatpacking industry and unsanitary conditions & led to gov’t regulation of food industries
Conclusions ■The Progressive movement began as an attempt to fix urban problems –Reformers lacked unity & were dedicated to their own causes
■Essential Question ■Essential Question: –How did Progressive reformers attempt to improve the lives of women & African-Americans? ■Warm-Up Question: –How were African Americans denied basic rights after the Civil War?
Reform for African-Americans ■Southern states passed segregation laws that required separate public and private facilities for African Americans. These were called Jim Crow laws
■Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Jim Crow laws ■Under the “separate but equal” doctrine, the Court ruled racial segregation was legal in public places
African-American Reforms ■But, black leaders were divided on how to address racial problems –Booker T Washington –His “Atlanta Compromise” stressed black self-improvement & accommodation with whites
■W.E.B. DuBois ■W.E.B. DuBois was more aggressive NAACP ■DuBois formed the NAACP which called for immediate equality in, African-American Reforms
■Essential Question ■Essential Question: –How did progressives bring reform to urban & state governments? ■Warm-Up Question: –What problems did the progressives address?
Progressives helped make state governments more democratic State of Texas Initiative: Supporters of any new law could collect voters’ signatures to force a public vote on the issue.
Referendum: When enough citizens supported an initiative, the government had to present the issue to the public as a referendum on which the public could vote
Citizens could remove public officials from office before their terms expired by organizing a recall election
Progressive Reform in the States –direct primary elections to allow voters to choose candidates, not parties –17 th Amendment allowed for the direct election of Senators
Theodore Roosevelt: A “Modern” President ■ TR committed to a series of reforms: – “trustbusting” – Regulating businesses – Conservation of natural resources
Trustbusting –The Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890 made it illegal for companies to restrict trade
Regulating Business ■When muckraker Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle was published, –Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act in 1906 –To ban harmful products & end false medicine claims, the Pure Food & Drug Act passed in 1906
Unregulated Food & Medicines: The Need for the Pure Food & Drug Act
Conservation of the Environment ■He began a Progressive conservation movement ■conserved millions of acres of wilderness lands ■Led to the national park system that included, –Yosemite in California –Yellowstone in Wyoming.