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1 Unequal opportunities for migrants? Ungleiche Chancen für MigrantInnen? The problem of ethnic discrimination in the EU Das Problem der Diskriminierung.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Unequal opportunities for migrants? Ungleiche Chancen für MigrantInnen? The problem of ethnic discrimination in the EU Das Problem der Diskriminierung."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Unequal opportunities for migrants? Ungleiche Chancen für MigrantInnen? The problem of ethnic discrimination in the EU Das Problem der Diskriminierung aufgrund ethnischer Zugehörigkeit in der EU John Wrench Centre for Diversity and Inclusion Zentrum für Diversität und Inklusion Norwegian University of Science and Technology Graz, November 2012

2 EU Agencies EU- Agenturen Specialised bodies set up to assist member states to cope with new tasks of a legal, technical or scientific nature European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EUROFOUND) Europäische Stiftung zur Verbesserung der Lebens- und Arbeitsbedingungen EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) Agentur der Europäischen Union für Grundrechte (FRA) 2

3 3

4 Recommendations: Eurofound 1996 Empfehlungen seitens Eurofound 1996 EU directive prohibiting racial discrimination in employment Anti-discrimination legislation in all EU member states More awareness raising, information provision and research 4

5 5 Racial Equality Directive (2000/43 /EC) Richtlinie zur Anwendung des Gleichbehandlungsgrundsatzes ohne Unterschied der Rasse oder ethnischen Herkunft prohibits: direct discrimination indirect discrimination harassment instruction to discriminate on grounds of racial or ethnic origin, in employment and training, (as well as education, social security, healthcare, housing, access to goods and services)

6 6 Founded in Vienna in 1998 as the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC). Europäische Stelle zur Beobachtung von Rassismus und Fremdenfeindlichkeit On 1st March 2007 the EUMC s mandate was extended, and it became the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) Agentur der Europäischen Union für Grundrechte (FRA)

7 7 One of its prime objectives has been zu deren Hauptzielen zählt… to provide the Community and its Member States with objective, reliable and comparable data at European level on the phenomena of racism and xenophobia in order to help them take measures or formulate courses of action within their respective spheres of competence

8 FRA Annual Report 2011 Jahresbericht der FRA

9 Migrants, Minorities and Employment: Exclusion and Discrimination in 27 Member States of the European Union 2010 MigrantInnen, Minoritäten und Beschäftigung: Ausgrenzung und Diskriminierung in den 27 Mitgliedsstaaten der EU

10 10 Sources of evidence for racial discrimination in employment Informationsquellen in Bezug auf rassistisch/ethnisch motivierte Diskriminierung in der Beschäftigung 1.Statistics and official surveys 2.Evidence from complaints, court cases 1.Evidence from research

11 : Cases of racial/ethnic discrimination in employment put forward for legal consideration 1997: Fälle rassistisch/ethnisch motivierter Diskriminierung in der Beschäftigung, welche juristisch geprüft wurden Sweden France UK

12 : Cases of racial/ethnic discrimination in employment put forward for legal consideration 1997: Fälle rassistisch/ethnisch motivierter Diskriminierung in der Beschäftigung, welche juristisch geprüft wurden Sweden0 France4 UK3 173

13 13 Evidence from research Forschungsergebnisse als Informationsquellen Surveys of the majority population and gatekeepers Surveys of the minority population (victim surveys) Discrimination testing

14 National surveys – employers Nationale Erhebungen unter ArbeitgeberInnen 2000 Denmarkof 1200 private sector employers, 25% would not hire an immigrant or refugee under any circumstances 2007 Belgium80 % of employers (small/self-employed) would never hire an immigrant 2007 Sloveniaof 112 major employers, 32% prioritised recruitment of ethnic Slovenians; 74% rejected positive action for ethnic minorities 2009 Lithuaniaof 404 companies, 60% prioritised local citizens; resistant to recruiting refugees 14

15 Surveys of migrants & minorities Erhebungen unter MigrantInnen & Angehörigen von Minoritäten In 2006 report: Russian speakers in Estonia, Turks in Germany, Russians, Estonians & Vietnamese in Finland, immigrants in Denmark, immigrants and their descendants in France, all reported subjective experiences of discrimination 0f 1000 Turks in Germany, 56% experienced discriminatory treatment at the workplace 15

16 ILO Situation Testing Internationale Arbeitsorganisation-ILO Situations Tests zur Erhebung von Diskriminierung Net discrimination rates of around 35 % (i.e. in one in three attempts migrants/minorities faced ethnic discrimination) Minority candidates need to make 3 -5 times more attempts to achieve a positive response In one local situation they needed to make 17 times more attempts 16

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18 18 EU-MIDIS: Largest EU-wide survey on minorities EU-MIDIS: Größte EU- weite Erhebung zu Minderheiten und Diskriminierung – Roma – Sub-Saharans/Caribbeans – Central and Eastern Europeans – Turkish – Former Yugoslavians – North Africans – Russian 23,500 migrant/ethnic minority respondents Different groups surveyed across Member States: 5,000 majority population respondents

19 19 EU – MIDIS: Background Info EU- Midis: Hintergrundinformationen Respondents age 16+, in country at least 1 year Random sample of 500 – 1,500 respondents per country (min 500 per group) Standardised questionnaire Face-to-face interviews in peoples homes lasting between 20 to 60 minutes Fieldwork period May – mid July 2008, some in Oct-Nov 2008

20 20 Discrimination Experiences Diskriminierungserfahrungen EU-MIDIS asked respondents about discrimination they had experienced, in the past 12 months or in the past 5 years, in nine areas: 1.when looking for work 2.at work 3.when looking for a house or an apartment to rent or buy 4.by healthcare personnel 5.by social service personnel 6.by school personnel 7.at a café, restaurant or bar 8.when entering or in a shop 9.when trying to open a bank account or get a loan

21 21 Percentage discriminated at work or looking for work: Iast 12 months (%) EU-MIDIS 2008, questions CA2 & CB2

22 22 Percentage of respondents who did not report work-related discrimination Prozentsatz der Befragten, welche Diskriminierungvorfälle nicht meldeten Most recent incident in the past 12 months, out of all those who experienced work-related discrimination EU-MIDIS 2008, questions CA4 & CB4

23 23 Reasons for not reporting the most recent incident of discrimination Gründe für das Unterlassen der Meldung eines Diskriminierungsvorfalles In the past 12 months, all respondents (%)

24 24 Yes 37 % No 60% Don't know/Refused 3% Percentage of respondents in the EU27 who have heard of at least one of up to three equality bodies in their country Prozentsätze der Befragten in den EU 27, welche mindestens eine /bis zu drei Anti- Diskriminierungseinrichtungen in ihrem Land nennen konnten

25 25 Racial Equality Directive (2000/43/EC) Die Richtlinie zur Gleichbehandlung ohne Unterschied der Rasse Prohibits racial / ethnic discrimination in: – Employment – Education – Social security – Health care – Access to goods and services – Housing

26 26 Racial Equality Directive (2000/43 /EC) Die Richtlinie zur Gleichbehandlung ohne Unterschied der Rasse Bans: direct discrimination indirect discrimination harassment instruction to discriminate on grounds of racial or ethnic origin

27 27

28 28 Research on Social Partners views on the Racial Equality Directive Untersuchung der Einstellung der Sozialpartner zur EU-Richtlinie zur Rassengleichbehandlung Focus of the study: – Awareness of the Directive and relevant national legislation among the social partners – Opinions of the social partners on the value of the Directive and on the role of equality bodies – Opinions on the impact of the Directive 28

29 29 Study methodology Methodik der Studie Qualitative study: 344 interviews in EU-27 – trade unions, employers organisations (+ some NGOs and Equality Bodies) – 2 questionnaires; interview time 30 min – 2hours – fieldwork: March – June 2009

30 Positive employers Positive Rückmeldungen der ArbeitgeberInnen Austrian private sector The Racial Equality Directive was a positive step and an important weapon for HR managers wishing to generalise non-discriminatory practices and harassment. Behaviour regarded as a peccadillo before is now an offence to be prosecuted. Austrian Federal Economic Chamber Since the implementation of the law in 2004 staff recruitment processes of companies have decisively improved and are more and more oriented on principles of equal treatment, as a result of more training ….. Swedish Construction Confederation The EU directive has helped to raise the public debate on discrimination and this has in turn increased the awareness and knowledge on this problem. 30

31 Positive trade unions Positive Rückmeldungen der Gewerkschaften Trade union, France Without the European legislation the strength of denial has always been so strong that we would still be having to battle in order to start the fight against discrimination. Trade union, Belgium Collective bargaining on discrimination has become noticeably easier with the employers after the Racial Equality Directive had been transposed nationally. Trade union, Sweden The EU Racial Equality Directive and the subsequent Swedish law have made the problem of racism and discrimination more visible 31

32 Negative employers Negativ gestimmte ArbeitgeberInnen Danish Local Government They (the anti-discrimination laws) are based on a naïve idea that the situation can be changed if you come up with a new law… I consider it a misconception to think that one can pass laws on these issues… Legislation will not solve these issues. German private sector They want to regulate something than cannot be regulated. They are restricting people's freedom… I do not think that such a law is necessary because discrimination is something intrinsic which cannot be hindered by laws. German private sector It is a law for idiots. I would never say I do not want you because you are Turkish. Nobody would do that… ……I do not think you can regulate this through laws. I am totally opposed to this law - to these kinds of laws. 32

33 No problem here – employers Wir haben kein Problem – ArbeitgeberInnen Romanian employers organisation: All in all, I do not consider that there are racial problems in Romania. Bulgarian employers' organisation: Working people from the minorities… do not feel oppressed or discriminated against. Latvian employers organisation: Maybe there have been problems in Germany historically - we know that with the Jews. But in Latvia we have never had anything like that. Ethnic discrimination is not a problem, it has never been here. Never! 33

34 No problem here – trade unions Wir haben kein Problem- Gewerkschaften Trade union, Czech Republic : The racial discrimination issue is marginal. Trade Union Confederation, Estonia: I think that racial discrimination in the workplace is missing in Estonia. Trade union, Latvia: 'The EU non-discrimination law is seen as something forced on the country from the outside, and non-essential. 34

35 Roma Minorität der Roma Employer, Lithuania The problem in Lithuania is about the Roma species, as we call them here. They simply dont want to work, they dont want to learn,..... Employer, Bulgaria There are some practices in Bulgaria that are not discrimination, but as a result there are Roma people in an unfavourable position. Trade Union Confederation, Lithuania: We don't see a lot of discrimination here in Lithuania at all …….As regards Gypsies, our employers do not like to have workers who are Gypsies. 35

36 Levels of awareness and response Ausprägung des Problembewusstseins und Reaktionen Are they (employers or unions) aware of the Racial Equality Directive? Are they aware of national anti-discrimination legislation? Are they aware of their national Equality Body (if one exists)? Have they adapted their policies to include combating racial/ ethnic discrimination? Have they adapted their practices to include anti- discrimination measures? Are they strongly committed to combating racial/ethnic discrimination? 36

37 Awareness and response score Problembewusstheit und Bewertung der Reaktionen CountryScore Sweden6.0 Ireland5.7 Finland5.5 UK5.2 Germany5.1 Denmark5.0 Belgium5.0 Netherlands4.7 Austria4.6 Portugal Spain France Italy Greece4.0 Luxembourg3.8 37

38 Awareness and response score (cont.) Problembewusstheit und Bewertung der Reaktionen (forts.) CountryScore Cyprus3.7 Slovenia3.6 Slovakia3.5 Malta3.4 Romania3.3 Poland3.3 Lithuania3.3 Hungary3.3 Czech Republic3.2 Bulgaria3.2 Latvia3.0 Estonia2.8 38

39 39 Key results Wesentliche Ergebnisse Trade unions more aware and sympathetic than employers Mixed awareness: EU15/EU12 divide Roma unequal treatment not conceptualised as discrimination; the minority not deserving protection under the Directive More awareness-raising and training needed among employers and TU officials

40 : Cases of racial/ethnic discrimination in employment put forward for legal consideration 1997: Fälle rassistisch/ethnisch motivierter Diskriminierung in der Beschäftigung, welche juristisch geprüft wurden Sweden0 France4 UK3 173

41 2009: Complaints of racial/ethnic discrimination made to equality bodies 2009: Zahl der bei Gleichbehandlungsstellen eingegangenen Beschwerdefälle zu rassistischer/ethnischer Diskriminierung Sweden2 409 France3 009 UK

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