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Published byVernon Johnston Modified over 7 years ago
1 Scientific Method
2 Observation Employing your five senses to perceive objects or events
3 Asking a Question Based on observations; one or more questions are generated
4 Hypothesizing Explanation for what you have seen and recorded Can be tested Based on prior knowledge
5 Forming a Hypothesis Statement is testable if evidence can be collected that either does or doesn’t support it Often must be revised if it is NOT supported by the testing data Often in the form of an “if-then” statement however doesn’t have to be.
6 Predicting To test hypothesis it is necessary to make predictions that logically follows from the hypothesis A statement made in advance that states the results that will be obtained from testing the hypothesis
7 Experimenting Testing a hypothesis or prediction by gathering data under controlled conditions – conducting a controlled experiment Based on a comparison of a control group with an experimental group
8 Both groups are identical except for one factor (independent variable) Observations and measurements are taken for a particular factor (dependent variable) in both groups Driven by or results from independent variable
9 Collecting Data Includes any and all information that scientist gather in trying to answer their questions Includes all measurements & observations made during the experiment
10 Measuring Involves quantitative data that can be measured in numbers Sampling Technique of using a sample – a small part – to represent the entire population
11 Organizing Data Involves placing observations and measurement (data) in order Graphs, charts, tables, or maps
12 Analyzing Data Collected and organized data must be analyzed Process of determining whether data are reliable or whether they support or do not support a hypothesis or prediction
13 Inferring Conclusions made on the basis of facts or premises rather than on direct observations Often drawn from data gathered from a study or experiment and previous knowledge Not directly testable
14 Forming a Theory A theory may be formed after many related hypotheses have been tested and supported with experimental evidence A broad and comprehensive statement of what is thought to be true Supported by considerable evidence Ties together related hypotheses
15 Communication Share the results of their studies with other scientists Publish findings in journals or at scientific meetings
16 Communication Sharing of information is essential to scientific process Subject to examination and verification by other scientists Allows scientists to build on the work of others
17 Scientific Measurements
18 Measurements Scientists use SI units or metric system Based on units of ten
19 Base Units of Measurement Length – Meter Volume – Liter Mass – Gram Time – Second Temperature - o C Always read the Meniscus (bottom of the curve)
20 Common Metric Prefixes used in Biology Kilo- means 1000 Centi- means 1/100 th Milli- means 1/1000 th Micro – means 1/100,000 th Nano- means 1/100000000th
21 Other Metric Prefixes
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