# Parul Institute of Engineering & Technology Subject Code : 151903 Name Of Subject : Fluid Power Engineering Name of Unit : Pumps Topic : Reciprocating.

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Parul Institute of Engineering & Technology Subject Code : 151903 Name Of Subject : Fluid Power Engineering Name of Unit : Pumps Topic : Reciprocating pumps

Water Pumps 

Definition Water pumps are devices designed to convert mechanical energy to hydraulic energy. They are used to move water from lower points to higher points with a required discharge and pressure head. This chapter will deal with the basic hydraulic concepts of water pumps

Pump Classification Turbo-hydraulic (kinetic) pumps Centrifugal pumps (radial-flow pumps) Propeller pumps (axial-flow pumps) Jet pumps (mixed-flow pumps) Positive-displacement pumps Screw pumps Reciprocating pumps

This classification is based on the way by which the water leaves the rotating part of the pump. In radial-flow pump the water leaves the impeller in radial direction, while in the axial-flow pump the water leaves the propeller in the axial direction. In the mixed-flow pump the water leaves the impeller in an inclined direction having both radial and axial components

Schematic diagram of basic elements of centrifugal pump

Schematic diagram of axial-flow pump arranged in vertical operation

Reciprocating Pumps Reciprocating pumps are those which cause the fluid to move using one or more oscillating pistons, plungers or membranes (diaphragms). To 'Reciprocate' means 'To Move Backwards and Forwards'. A 'RECIPROCATING' pump therefore, is one with a forward and backward operating action.

Working Of Reciprocating pumps. In the reciprocating pump a piston sucks the fluid into a cylinder then pushes it up causing the water to rise.

Type & Construction features of reciprocating Pump:-- 1.Position - Vertical - Horizontal 2.Purpose - Metering Pump - Power Pump 3. Piston or Plunger acting : Single acting, Double acting 4. Number of Plunger in One Casing : Single, Duplex, Triplex, Multiplex 5. Liquid End Type : Direct exposed, Diaphragm 6. Plunger direction : Forward, Backward. Reduction

Types of reciprocating pump Simple hand operated Power operated Single acting Double acting

Single acting reciprocating pump In the single acting reciprocating pump, a piston moves inside a cylinder with the help of a piston rod operated by a wheel through a connecting rod. There is one suction pipe and one delivery pipe in the cylinder. When the piston moves outwards, a vacuum is created, the suction valve opens, and the delivery pipe is closed. The water enters through the delivery pipe. When the piston moves downwards, it forces the water in one cylinder outward through the delivery pipe. Water is accordingly lifted up and delivered for use. Flow is not continuous.

Double acting reciprocating pump In the double acting reciprocating pump, two suction and two delivery valves are provided in the same cylinder enabling continuous flow.

Components of Reciprocating Pump:-- Main components of reciprocating pump : - 1.Reduction gear - Coupling - Casing and crankcase – 2.Crankshaft - Connecting Rod – 3.Spacer rod - Plunger – 4.Packing - Check valves – 5.Bearings for crankshaft and connecting rod

Main component of Reciprocating pump:- -

MAIN TERMS a) Brake Horsepower (BHP) Brake horsepower is the actual power required at the pump input shaft in order to achieve the desired pressure and flow. It is defined as the following formula: BHP=(Q ¥ Pd)/(1714 ¥ Em) 102 Pumps Reference Guidewhere: BHP = brake horsepower Q = delivered capacity, (gpm US) Pd = developed pressure, (psi) Em = mechanical efficiency, (% as a decimal) b) Capacity (Q) The capacity is the total volume of liquid delivered per unit of time. This liquid includes entrained gases and solids at specified conditions.

c) Pressure (Pd) The pressure used to determine brake horsepower is the differential developed pressure. Because the suction pressure is usually small relative to the discharge pressure, discharge pressure is used in lieu of differential pressure. d) Mechanical Efficiency (Em) The mechanical efficiency of a power pump at full load pressure and speed is 90 to 95% depending on the size, speed, and construction. e) Displacement (D) Displacement (gpm) is the calculated capacity of the pump with no slip losses. For single-acting plunger or piston pumps, it is defined as the following: Where: D = displacement, (gpm US) A = cross-sectional area of plunger or piston, (in2) M = number of plungers or pistons n = speed of pump, (rpm) s = stroke of pump, (in.) (half the linear distance the plunger or piston moves linearly in one revolution)

f) Slip(s) Slip is the capacity loss as a fraction or percentage of the suction capacity. It consists of stuffing box loss BL plus valve loss VL. However, stuffing box loss is usually considered negligible. g) Valve Loss (VL) Valve loss is the flow of liquid going back through the valve while it is closing and/or seated. This is a 2% to 10% loss depending on the valve design or condition. h) Speed (n) Design speed of a power pump is usually between 300 to 800 rpm depending on the capacity, size, and horsepower. To maintain good packing life, speed is limited to a plunger velocity of 140 to 150 ft/minute. Pump speed is also limited by valve life and allowable suction conditions. i) Pulsations The pulsating characteristics of the output of a power pump are extremely important in pump application. The magnitude of the discharge pulsation is mostly affected by the number of plungers or pistons on the crankshaft.

j) Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR) The NPSHR is the head of clean clear liquid required at the suction centerline to ensure proper pump suction operating conditions. For any given plunger size, rotating speed, pumping capacity, and pressure, there is a specific value of NPSHR. A change in one or more of these variables changes the NPSHR. It is a good practice to have the NPSHA (available) 3 to 5 psi greater than the NPSHR. This will prevent release of vapor and entrained gases into the suction system, which will cause cavitations damage in the internal passages. k) Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) The NPSHA is the static head plus the atmospheric head minus lift loss, frictional loss, vapor pressure, velocity head, and acceleration loss in feet available at the suction center-line.

General advantages of reciprocating pumps are: Ability to pump water that contains sand Adaptable to low-capacity water supplies where high lifts are required above the pump. Can operate with a variety of head pressures Can be installed in very small diameter wells

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