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ISTITUTO EUROPEO DESIGN Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct. 2006 Slide: 1 Dr. Alfio Galatà Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Saving.

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Presentation on theme: "ISTITUTO EUROPEO DESIGN Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct. 2006 Slide: 1 Dr. Alfio Galatà Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Saving."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ISTITUTO EUROPEO DESIGN Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 1 Dr. Alfio Galatà Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Saving Performances in Buildings

3 General Overview BMS: Building Management System Case Study: Daylight (thermal & visual) control Installation: Facade Management System Conclusion Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 2

4 Sustainable Development Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 3 is a broad view of human welfare, with a long term perspective about the consequences of today's activities, and a global co-operation to reach viable solutions without diminishing the capacity of future generations to meet theirs needs.

5 Kyoto Protocol Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 4 Agreement for gas emission limitation and reduction commitments to promote sustainable development, implementing new policies and measures, such as: Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy.. Promotion of sustainable forms in view of climate change considerations. Encouragement of appropriate reforms in relevant sectors aimed at promoting policies and measures which limit or reduce gas emissions (i.e production, transport and distribution of energy).. Research, promotion, development and increased use of new and renewable forms of energy and innovative environmentally technologies. Worldwide Cooperation among Countries to enhance the individual and combined effectiveness of national policies and measures adopted.

6 Sustainable Development Contribution is a common care for everybody to improve the quality of the life Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 5 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Energy Efficient Systems Resource Conservation Innovative technologies and materials respectful of the environment Design anticipating future needs Optimisation of the management processes Information Technology Bioclimatic Design and Architecture

7 Telecommunications Automation Processes Information Technology Web Applications Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 6

8 Building Construction according to environmental rules Design with local climate conditions, not without Bioclimatic Design and Architecture Energy Saving Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 7 Best comfort conditions for occupants

9 Innovative Technologies and Optimal Management techniques Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 8 Microelectronic systems, with a direct impact on spaces reduction Dynamic space allocation and occupants behaviour Distributed systems and distributed control functions Definition of Chart of Services, management costs and return of investments Showing new solutions for future

10 Climate conditions of the Site. Typically, the Bioclimatic Design and Architecture has to take into account the following physical variables: External Temperature Relative Humidity Solar Radiation Wind velocity and direction Rain Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 9 Bioclimatic Design and Architecture

11 Building envelope opaque components Building envelope opaque components Surface and position of windows Surface and position of windows Building envelope and orientation Building envelope and orientation Control of Solar Radiation to avoid overheating in summer Control of Solar Radiation to avoid overheating in summer Characteristics of glasses Characteristics of glasses Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation Passive Component Passive Component Environment in the surrounding Environment in the surrounding Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 10 MAIN ASPECTS:

12 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 11 Bioclimatic Design and Architecture Building envelope and orientation: Building envelope and orientation: impact on thermal exchanges with external environment. Solar Radiation in summer/winter incident on the envelope as a function of the building orientation. Shapes facing East and West must be avoided.

13 Solar Radiation flowing through the glazing in summer/winter as a function of building orientation Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 12 Bioclimatic Design and Architecture

14 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Bioclimatic Design and Architecture Thermal insulation allows to cut off overheating in summer introducing a better indoor comfort conditions and energy savings. Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 13

15 THERMAL INSULATION Es: Wall made by double tiles with air gap (steady-state). without insulation: K = 1,06 W/m²K With insulation (3 cm of poliuretane): K = 0.53 W/m²K Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 14 Bioclimatic Design and Architecture Reduction of heat load means a reduction on the HVAC design and performances. Reduction of heat load means a reduction on the HVAC design and performances. Reduction of heat losses determines a consequent reduction on heating/cooling/ventilation energy consumption. Reduction of heat losses determines a consequent reduction on heating/cooling/ventilation energy consumption. Increase of the wall surface temperature determines a consequent improvement of indoor comfort Increase of the wall surface temperature determines a consequent improvement of indoor comfort Avoid risks of surface heat condense on the wall Avoid risks of surface heat condense on the wall ADVANTAGES

16 Thermal insulation is important to avoid thermal bridges. Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 15 Bioclimatic Design and Architecture Humid surfaces and mildew. Humid surfaces and mildew. Cold surfaces in winter. Cold surfaces in winter. Spot of colour and degradation of inside/outside finishes. Spot of colour and degradation of inside/outside finishes. Increase of heating, cooling and ventilation heating consumption. Increase of heating, cooling and ventilation heating consumption. Thermal Bridges Disadvantage

17 Windows and glazing: The main characteristics for indoor comfort and energy savings are: transparency, solar factor and thermal transmittance. Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Bioclimatic Design and Architecture Component Transparency [%] Solar factor [%] Thermal Transmittance [W/m²K] Glazing Double glazing Double Low emission glazing Double reflecting glazing Double selective glazing Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 16 Windows and glazing must have a good transparency, a low thermal transmittance and must allow a solar control.

18 Solar Shadings avoid overheating and are suitable to improve thermal and visual comfort conditions. Possible typologies: Fixed, usually adopted in facades south oriented. Mobile, usually adopted to perform the automatic control of vertical position and blind orientation. Internal, often submitted to manual control External, have an high level of efficiency concerning solar control respect to those internal. Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Bioclimatic Design and Architecture Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 17

19 Efficiency of horizontal Solar Shadings on the south facade. Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 18 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Bioclimatic Design and Architecture

20 The Trombe Wall Solar Houses Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Bioclimatic Design and Architecture Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 19

21 The Natural Ventilation is the most applied technique in order to obtain passive cooling. It allows: To reduce indoor air temperature when it is higher than the external one, and to cool the overall building during the night hours. To improve indoor thermal comfort. Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Bioclimatic Design and Architecture Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 20

22 SOLAR SYSTEMS: they convert solar energy into thermal or electrical energy. Main barrier: architecture integration in order to obtain the best efficiency. Solar Collectors Photovoltaic Collectors Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Bioclimatic Design and Architecture Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 21

23 General Overview BMS: Building Management System Case Study: Daylight (thermal & visual) control Installation: Facade Management System Conclusion Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 22

24 Recent developments in computer technologies and advanced building design on: living spaces living spaces technological plants technological plants services services office automation office automation are merging together to offer an optimal control and optimal management of the indoor comfort and energy functions. Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 23 Building Management System The main goal nowadays is to dynamically co-ordinate the changing needs, to solve all the mutual interactions of the different building functions: lighting lighting (artificial and natural) heatingcooling heating and cooling indoor air quality ventilation indoor air quality and ventilation

25 efficiency, efficiency, through a continue co-ordination of physical plants with constantly changing needs. larger energy saving larger energy saving, by increasing efficiency through a dynamic closed-loop control. higher indoor comfort higher indoor comfort, by combining the control actions with the human presence and users wishes. Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 24 Building Management System The modern concept considers a building as a WHOLE where energy plants are integrated with envelope components and human presence by means of reliable and low-cost control components, to achieve:

26 Advanced installation of: design, manufacture, engineering, installation, commissioning and maintenance processes design, manufacture, engineering, installation, commissioning and maintenance processes Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System should be contemporary treated together with: climate, building envelope, use of spaces, users wishes and behaviour, control functions, management methods and national regulations climate, building envelope, use of spaces, users wishes and behaviour, control functions, management methods and national regulations. physical variablesindividual human requirements The combination of energy efficiency and individual optimal comfort is performed by evaluating physical variables together with individual human requirements. Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 25

27 Ventilation Heating / Cooling Blind Shutter Lighting Indoor Air Quality Indoor Temperature Indoor Light Properties Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 26 Building Management System

28 Environment and Climate Energy Management & Indoor Comfort Information and Communication technologies THE INTEGRATED CONCEPT Safety, Security and Maintenance Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 27

29 BMS CONTROL SYSTEM The typical main components of a BMS CONTROL SYSTEM are: Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 28 physical devices physical devices (hardware), i.e. sensors, actuators, regulators, switches, electronic valves, which allow to detect physiacal information and to perform individual control actions; algorithms algorithms (functions performed by software), which allow to perform simple or complex actions to operate the technological plants in order to apply the programmed rules; field devicesservices field devices and services achieved by engineering. Building Management System

30 field level field level automation or control level automation or control level management level management level Remote monitoring Remote monitoring is utilized when supervised systems are geographically scattered. Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 29

31 A computer-based system (Hardware and Software) enables the automation of all technological installation within the building Software Hardware BMS Supervisor system Firmware (control & communication) Modules Sensors Actuators protocols (LON, BacNet,..) Software Hardware Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 30

32 Software Hardware BMS Supervision system Firmware (control & communication) Modules Sensors Actuators each module is firmware embedded, i.e. each module performs its task(s) in autonomous and independent way. Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System A computer-based system (Hardware and Software) enables the automation of all technological installation within the building protocols (LON, BacNet,..) Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 31

33 Software Hardware BMS Modules Sensors Actuators each module is firmware embedded, i.e. each module performs its task(s) in autonomous and independent way supervision system receives/send data from/to all hardware devices Supervision system Firmware (control & communication) protocols (LON, BacNet,..) Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System A computer-based system (Hardware and Software) enables the automation of all technological installation within the building Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 32

34 Software Hardware BMS Local Control Energy Management Alarm Management Data Storing & Processing Remote Control (Supervisor) I/O Control Modules Sensors / Actuators protocols (LON, BacNet,..) Software Hardware Operation Capability and Data Processing available to Operators, according to their own access level authorization. Structure & Components Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 33 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System

35 Typical BEMS Functions (Control Algorithms) General Control Functions General Control Functions Scheduled start/stop control Optimum start/stop controls Summer/winter change-over Discriminator control Control of electrical equipment Control of electrical equipment Duty cycling Load shedding Electric equipment restart Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 34

36 Typical BEMS Functions (Control Algorithms) Control of air-conditioning Control of air-conditioning Outdoor air damper control during warm- up/cool-down period Unoccupied temperature setback Dry bulb economizer control Enthalpy economizer control Supply air fan control for VAV systems Building pressure control for VAV system VAV terminal unit control Coil freeze protection Heat recovery bypass Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 35 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System

37 Typical BEMS Functions (Control Algorithms) Heating/Cooling Control Heating/Cooling Control Heating/Cooling plant control Space heating water circuit control Steam to hot water convector control Tube radiation control Room temperature closed loop control Open loop control of heating/cooling control systems Open loop control in combination with the thermostatic valve control Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 36 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System

38 Typical BEMS Functions (Control Algorithms) Lighting Control Lighting Control On/Off Occupancy Tuning Combined control of artificial and daylight Demand limiting Adaptation and compensation Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 37 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System

39 BMS technology Use of technology and process to create a building that is safer and more productive for its occupants and more operationally efficient for its owners Communication protocols BMS Data processing and communication technology Software procedures installed into the devices to exchange data Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 38

40 Access Lighting HVAC Elevators Fire alarms Blinds Sensors BMS Integration of all technological plants working within the building in a unique automation system Fire and safety systems HVAC Elevators and escalators Access control systems Lighting management Communication available to occupants / tenants Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 39

41 Remote Control of Technological Plants Remote Control of Technological Plants Facilities for Maintenance Measurement, Alarms, Events, Diagnostic Data Acquisition Facilities for Maintenance Measurement, Alarms, Events, Diagnostic Data Acquisition Facilities for Data Storing Configuration, Data-Base High Quality Data Sets Facilities for Data Storing Configuration, Data-Base High Quality Data Sets Facilities for Data Elaboration Graphical display, Trends, Reports, Print-outputs Facilities for Data Elaboration Graphical display, Trends, Reports, Print-outputs Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 40 Interface in a whole: I/O devices, local controllers and communication modules connected to a control network. Management Level (Supervisor) Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System

42 Cabling management system no longer assessable. High co-ordination effort. Server Sensor Actuator Hierarchical control system VS Distributed control System Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 41

43 Talk and work ability: Sensor and actuators exchange information directly with each other. No need of Central Controller. Minimal cabling. Flexibility for alterations and expansion. Low cost maintenance. Sensor Actuators Control module Hierarchical control system VS Distributed control System Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 42

44 Economy of maintenance and running costs (heating, lighting, ventilation, electricity, easy way to detect the damage and repair it, etc…) Decreased Energy cost Increased level of comfort and time savings Increased individual environmental control Safety and control levels are increased Increase Decrease Main Characteristics Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 43

45 General Overview BMS: Building Management System Case Study: Daylight (thermal & visual) control Installation: Facade Management System Conclusion Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 44

46 A blind controller must conform with to two building characteristics: heating/cooling --> thermal inertia and climate conditions visual comfort --> no inertia, immediate control Use appropriate algorithms for controlling blind position by the: control of passive solar gains, depending on the season control of visual comfort, depending on the user's presence The long term aspect is taken into account by considering the season. Possible situations: heating/cooling energy optimum (when user is not present in the room) visual comfort optimum (user is present in the room) user's wishes have always the priority Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 45 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

47 Objective : avoid glare allow as much daylight as possible keep blind movements minimum: to reduce the unexpected movements, the blind moves if there is a significant difference between the set-point and the actual position. Principles : when the user is present, the position is determined by the visual comfort rule base when the user is not present, the position is determined by the heating / cooling rule base the user has always the highest priority for setting the blind position. Algorithm: if clear sky, consider a possible reduction of setpoint value (in function of outside illuminance level and incidence angle), in order to take into account glare risk; if only diffuse, no reduction depending on the season, allow a further adaptation of setpoint (increase in winter, reduction in summer) adjust the blind position through a feedback-controlled loop Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 46 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

48 Thermal rule base concept: user is not present Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 47 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller. Ps = [Gv g a] + [Gv g ga (1 - a)] – [k" (Ti - Te)] a = blind position (a = 0: blind closed; a = 1: blind open) Artificial lighting: off Try to help the heating / cooling system by choosing the best possible blind position Window and blind power balance

49 Blind rule base control: user is present Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 48 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller. Rules: When the user enters the room, the controller switches in the visual optimisation mode. Artificial lighting and blinds are both controlled automatically. If there are several blinds, each one has, at the beginning, the same control algorithm. They are differentiated by the adaptation to the user. The user has always the possibility to override the automatic control system. Thermal aspects are considered during visual optimisation.

50 user is not present If user is not present, the artificial lighting system is switched off (after a determined time delay). user is present If user is present, the visual comfort rule base delivers a Boolean signal (artificial lighting needed / not needed) When artificial lighting is needed, the illuminance level provided by the luminaries must complement the daylight: Artificial Lighting rule base Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Lighting control: Case Study - an integrated concept for a Blind Controller with: Eset= illuminance set-point (including all the adaptations) En= illuminance level provided by the daylight (with actual blind position) Ea = Eset - En Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 49

51 (1) Energy efficiency and saving: measurements and simulations on one full year (at least one full season) comparative measurements on occupied real buildings (2 similar rooms, regular interchange to cancel the bias due to different user's behaviour) Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Lighting control: Case Study - an integrated concept for a Blind Controller Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 50 (2) Comfort: for long term comfort statistics, one full year simulation and/or experiment on real buildings comfort has to be evaluated together with the energy saving, for the same periods, using analytical expressions.

52 Politecnique of Lausanne (CH) - LESO Building Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 51 Old south façade with only textile blinds Refurbished south façade, with venetian & textile blinds Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

53 LESO Building - New South Facade Front View Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 52 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

54 Two windows in each room: lower window --> normal window upper window --> daylight system Each window has its own blind (textile blind) LESO Building - New Facade Element: Cross section Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 53 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

55 Solar Radiation [W/m 2 ] Heating [kW] Air Temperature [°C] Energy Saving Heating [kW] Air Temperature [°C] Traditional Control (Instantaneous Regulation) Advanced Control Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 54 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

56 Two rooms (203 and 204) have been considered, one equipped with advanced controller and the other one equipped with conventional controller (no automatic control, only users command). To reduce the experimental bias (room characteristics, user behavior) exchange several times both rooms has been done: Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings P adv = (E adv,203 + E adv,204 ) / (t 1 + t 2 ) P conv = (E conv,203 + E conv,204 ) / (t 1 + t 2 ) room 203, advanced controller (time duration t 1 ) room 203, conventional controller (time duration t 2 ) room 204, advanced controller (time duration t 2 ) room 204, conventional controller (time duration t 1 ) Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 55 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

57 Field Level Field Level blind controller (Textile blind) blind controller (Venetian blind) artificial light controller (continuous dimming or on/off control) Automation Level Automation Level textile or venetian blind controller, user not present (thermal optimization) textile blind controller, user present (visual optimization) venetian blind controller, user present (visual optimization) artificial light controller (continuous dimming or on/off control) Management Level Management Level visual comfort evaluation cost function Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 56 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

58 field level automation level management level Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 57 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

59 Thermal comfort (fill once for each half day): vote on a -3 to +3 scale (Fanger's PMV scale) Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 58 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Visual comfort ( fill 2 or 3 times a day ): illuminance level (too dark, correct, too bright) glare problems (yes/no) Air quality ( fill once at the end of the day ): air quality problem during the day (yes/no) Control system operation ( fill when there is a problem ): controller problems during the day (yes/no, if yes description of problems) Control system adaptation ( fill once at the end of the day ): system well adapted to user's wishes need to interact during the day with the system to modify its behaviour (how many times) Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

60 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings 9 different controllers have been developed and tested the algorithms are tested during three different periods corresponding to the three possible seasons: winter, mid-season and summer Two cases studied: with and without cooling system Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 59 The energy optimisation, using visual control systems (blind and artificial light) takes place when the user is not present for a certain amount of time (e.g. 15 minutes) Different things are done immediately: The artificial light is switched off. The slats are closed. Each blind is controlled in the same way. Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

61 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 60 Conclusion: The variable «season» is essential in order to have a good blind controller. Its even better to uses the variable «heating» in addition to the variable «season». Its best to have a positive window heat in mid-season when the heating/cooling system is off. Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

62 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Six different controllers have been developed and tested, considering a combination of: the exact position (both azimuth and height) of the sun respect to the facade. different penetrations of the sun in the room (leads to different behaviours). adaptation of the system (user wishes) respect to the work position. Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 61 The visual comfort optimisation, using visual control systems (blind and artificial light) takes place when the user is present in the room. Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller. The choosen algorithm provides: The maximum blind position, calculated in order to avoid glare. An adequate inside illuminance, through the final blind position and the artificial light contribution with the following requirements: o To avoid the oscillations (blind position and power light). o To keep an intelligent control even if the sensor gives temporarly wrong value (in case of paper on the sensor, etc…) o To reduce the numbers of blind movements

63 Rules for Visual Comfort Optimasation. If the inside illuminance is far (20%) from the set-point, apply the maximum blind position control. If the inside illuminance is very far (50%) from the set-point, apply the artificial light control, to complete the illuminance level. More if difference is more than 50% Less if difference is less than 30 % In order to allow an optimum adaptation to the user wishes and to the boundary conditions (room characteristics, current climate), a cost function need to be elaborated to take into account all the inconveniences: energy consumption (with possibly different weighting factors for electricity, fuel, etc) thermal discomfort air quality discomfort lighting discomfort The minimisation of the cost function is automatically determined by the adjustment of controllers at the automation level (setpoints, membership functions, various coefficients, etc) Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 62 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller.

64 Direct illuminance on facade [lux]Final blind positionMaximum blind position Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 63 Case Study - DayLight Control: an integrated concept for a Blind Controller. Artificial light contribution [lux]Inside Illuminance [lux]

65 Some methods have a theoretical approach: British Glare Index (1957); Guth Index (1963); Daylight Glare Index (1982); CIE Glare Index (1983); Aizlewood's Method with DGI (1993). Some methods are based on experimental data: Francioli's Method (1998): is a complex function using only two measured variables at the location where the visual comfort has to be evaluated: horizontal illuminance [lux] vertical illuminance on the user's eyes [lux] (that could be approximated by the luminance on the wall behind the user) LESO's Method (1998) Illuminance level discomfort proportional to: Ic = current illuminance Is = illuminance set-point Direct glare discomfort proportional to: Ci = clarity index (0 if only diffuse, 1 if only direct) a = blind position (0 if closed, 1 if open) f(q) = function of incidence angle (1 if q = 0, 0 if q p/2) Gvf = global vertical illuminance on the facade [lux] Artificial lighting discomfort proportional to: Iart = illuminance due to artificial lighting Itot = total illuminance (artificial lighting + daylighting) Lighting control: Case Study – Visual Comfort: Rules and Methods Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 64

66 C1, C2 and C3 are coefficient (weights) chosen to balance the different visual discomfort effects. Drawbacks: the coefficients C1, C2 and C3 are rather arbitrary. the glare discomfort is only calculated, instead of being measured directly. Final discomfort function: Lighting control: Case Study – Visual Comfort: LESOs Method Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 65 Illuminace level discomfort Maximum blind position

67 Lighting control: Case Study – Experimental Setup (1) Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 66 Sensors installed to perform measurement in the sampling rooms.

68 Sensors installed to perform measurement for the whole LESO building Lighting control: Case Study – Experimental Setup (2) Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 67

69 Lighting control: Case Study – Experimental Results Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Lighting controllers operation: Period 7-8 January 2000 Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 68

70 Lighting control: Case Study – Experimental Results Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Heating controllers operation: Period February 2000 Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 69

71 Blind controller (Heating + Lighting): 25% lower The Energy Consumption of the Advanced Controller is 25% lower than Conventional one. Energy losses: Conventional: 615 MJ Advanced: 600 MJ => 15 MJ less of energy losses 13 MJ comes from the difference of average of inside temperatures (22.8°C for advanced due to adaptation, 23.1°C for Conventional) 2 MJ comes from the supplementary insulation (blinds down) during night Moreover, 55 MJ (70-15) are saved through a better use of solar gains Lighting control: Case Study – Energy Saving Results Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 70

72 General Overview BMS: Building Management System Case Study: Daylight (thermal & visual) control Installation: Facade Management System Conclusion Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 71

73 The Project: Intelligent automation system specifically designed to perform a functional control (i.e. control, monitoring, alarms and trending) over a Façades motorised blind, vents and louvers within the building envelope. Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Facade Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 72 The Riverside Building – Dublin.

74 Projects Requirement : Control – the capability to start and stop equipment, adjust control loops and automatically adapt to the changes of the environmental and operating conditions. Monitoring – the capability of a continuous data acquisition related to physical variables and the system performances (for all the facades). Alarms – the capability to inform the Operator when a component is out of service or its functionality is downgraded. Typically alarms remain active until acknowledgement. Trending – the capability to perform on-line and off-line data elaboration (printoutputs, graphics, statistics, etc.), for all the analogue and digital variables configured in the system. Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Facade Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 73

75 Projects Requirement: The following individual elements of the building envelope were supposed to be controlled: The top and the bottom motorized louvers in the outer skin of the glass façade envelope; The motorized wooden blinds located within the façade cavity; The motorized vents located within the inner skin of the façade envelope; The motorized shading screens on the inner surface of the atrium vertical roof glazing element; The concealed motorized vents located at the upper edge of the atrium roof glazing. Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 74 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Facade Management System Internal skin BlindVents ILLUSTRATIVE External skin Louver

76 Project development Distributed architecture so that each façade (i.e. north, south, east and west) is an independent automation block for the control system. Each control module is divided in sub-modules (e.g. floors or sectors). Physical devices (i.e. motorized blocks) are controlled within each sub-modules. sub-modules performs his task in an autonomous and independent way each others, so that risk of failure for the whole façade are saved. Parameters: the internal thermal and visual conditions, and the external climate; occupants requirements; Profiles of indoor comfort to maintain; Building rules established at the supervisor level. Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 75 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Facade Management System

77 Software Hardware FMS Control devices (modules); Field sensor(s); Communication bus and network (i.e. cables, line ending modules, electrical circuits, TCP/IP-LonWorks interfaces, routers, ect.); Remote I/O panel (touch screens); Firmware (local control algorithms installed into the control modules). General Management software for centralised supervision, monitoring and remote system control; Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 76 The Project: Hardware & Software Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Facade Management System

78 FMS – Facade Management System Control Module Fan SMI motor Blinds Internal skin External skin Actuators Sensors System overview: Sensors measure the lux intensity. Module receives and elaborates measurements and users command. Module provides the correct position for the actuators, SMI motor and the Fan. The same concept is applied to HVAC Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 77 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Users command

79 Internal skin External skin SMI motor Time [h] Behaviour at Midday: Incident solar radiation produces an internal lux intensity higher than Set Point value. Therefore FNS regulates the blinds position and slats orientation, through the SMI motor, to guarantees the required visual comfort. Midday Lux intensity Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 78 FMS – Facade Management System Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Incident solar radiation

80 Internal skin Incident solar radiation External skin SMI motor Behaviour in the Afternoon: Incident solar radiation produces an internal lux intensity reduced but still able to meet the required set point value. Lux intensity is high enough therefore FMS sets the SMI motor: blinds horizontal position. Afternoon Lux intensity Time [h] Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 79 FMS – Facade Management System Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings

81 Internal skin External skin SMI motor Incident solar radiation Behaviour in the Evening: Incident solar radiation produces a lux intensity that is lower than the required set point value. Lux intensity is not high enough therefore FMS sets blinds vertical and the module triggers lights on. Evening Lux intensity Time [h] Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 80 FMS – Facade Management System Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings

82 General Overview BMS: Building Management System Case Study: Daylight (thermal & visual) control Installation: Facade Management System Conclusion Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 81

83 The BMS concept can be addressed to many market sectors, like: Public and Private Buildings, Individual or geographical Stocks: (Offices, Banks, Insurances, Hospitals, Hotels, Schools, Exhibition and Trade Centres, etc.) Industry and Large Infrastructures (Ports, Airports, Interports, Technological Networks) Sport and Recreational Centres (Stadiums, Gymnasiums, Swimming-pools, …) Museums, Theatres, Cinemas. Complexes of Residential Building Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 82

84 Criteria for BEMS evaluation. Energy saving Energy saving Occupant Comfort Occupant Comfort Reliability (control algorithms errors) Reliability (control algorithms errors) Costs Costs Pay-back period Pay-back period Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 83 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System

85 Reliability Protection against faults and faulty operation at any component level, continuity of service. Interoperability Low cost actions to change working configuration and to set up new ones, according to new specification. Modularity Control network can be expanded, saving investment preserving the existing one, and without stopping the ongoing control process. Energy Saving Lightning: 70-80% (manual control) Air conditioning: 20-35% (manual control) Maintenance Saving Personnel: 40-60% (outsourcing) Time : 80-90% (manual control) Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System: Advantages Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 84

86 Strategies based on room occupancy profiles Summer Occupancy Manual Control BMS Presence26 °C25 °C Temporary Absence (< 5 min.)26 °C27 °C Extended Absence (> 5 min.)26 °C29 °C Winter Occupancy Manual Control BMS Presence23 °C21 °C Temporary Absence (< 5 min.)23 °C18 °C Extended Absence (> 5 min.)23 °C16 °C Control Manual Control BMSSaving Electricity kWh e kWh e 69,25 % Electricity kWh e kWh e 69,25 % Summer kWh e kWh e 21,54 % Summer kWh e kWh e 21,54 % Winter Nm Nm 3 49,70 % Winter Nm Nm 3 49,70 % The energy saving at building level was: /year, of which: /year for electric consumption [kWh e ]; /year for gas consumption [Nm 3 ]. Including all, the BMS payback period was 4.2 years, against an estimated of 5.5 years. Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 85 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System: Savings

87 Experience shows that average costs for BMS implementation can be evaluated as following: Surface 50 ÷ 75 /m 2 Physical Input/Output 200 ÷ 250 Construction1,5 % added value The Building added value due to a BMS installation, considering: - the operative cost reductions, - the improvements in indoor comfort, safety and security - the technological innovation can be estimated more than of 5 % can be estimated more than of 5 %. Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 86 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System: Costs

88 Distributed architecture for local and remote control. Integration of different and marketable communication protocols in a whole standard communication system. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, with respect to plant controls, telecommunication systems and Internet applications. Protective and Security techniques with respect to data transmission and user inputs. Web-services, help-desk functions, fast-operating time Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 87 Design & Engineering Optimisation Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System: Project Methodology

89 Building-Plants investigation and collection of related data. Building-Plants Analysis to propose the most suitable solution according to Clients needs and choices. Definition of a Plan of SAVINGs, according to present and near future building rules, space planning operations, user wishes, occupant behaviour. Actions to be implemented to accomplish the Plan of SAVINGs and to improve efficiency in the whole management process. Actions to carry out in order to solve possible conflicts coming from the integration, in a whole process, of several plants purchased by different Vendors with different communication protocols. Design & Engineering Optimisation Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 88 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System: Project Methodology

90 Analysis of Requirements: preliminary investigation on building-plants system. Basic Engineering: HW and SW Architecture, Functional Specifications, List of I/O signals. Executive Engineering: design outlines; control module layout (domains, input, output, functions), protocol interfaces. Configuration: I/O variables database, control algorithms, functional lab tests. Supervisor: static & dynamical graphical displays, remote and communication software functions, alarm and diagnostic management, data storing and processing, user s definition and access profiles, help-on-line. Installation: may be direct or as support to other figures. In-Situ Tests, Acceptance and Start-Up. Project Documentation: As-Built, technical sheets, Use and Maintenance Manuals. Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 89 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Building Management System: Project Development

91 Istituto Europeo di Design – Master MSP in Lighting Design Milano, 5 Oct Slide: 90 Efficient Design for Indoor Comfort and Energy Savings Performance in Buildings Thank you Everything has to done as simple as possible, but not simpler. Albert Einstein


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