Presentation on theme: "US AND MIDDLE EAST Why are we so involved in the Middle East?"— Presentation transcript:
US AND MIDDLE EAST Why are we so involved in the Middle East?
Persian Gulf War In 1990, the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, a small important oil producing ally of the West, stunned world Leaders. The world immediately Turned attention to the Mid East and focused on Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein.
Persian Gulf War A coalition of UN forces led by the US, France, and Great Britain led a ground assault to drive the Iraqi military out of Kuwait. Other Countries Involved: US Kuwait United Nations (UN) Iraq Saudi Arabia
The Persian Gulf War This became known as “Operation: Desert Storm” and proved to be very effective in driving out Saddam Hussein’s forces.
Persian Gulf War Continued Cause 1. Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing oil 2. UN warned Iraq to leave Kuwait 3. Iraq was mad that Kuwait wanted $ back from Iran-Iraq war
Hussein in power 1. Saddam Hussein ~ leader of Iraq led invasion of Kuwait, refused to leave Kuwait 2. President Bush ~ led US to invade Iraq 3. UN cuts off Iraq’s trade
Outcomes Hussein refused the UN peace treaty. International embargo was placed on Iraq Many killed (Kurds) Iraqi air force destroyed Iraq set Kuwait’s oil fields on fire Saddam Hussein still in power Iraq defeated Must destroy WMD
Post 9/11 Wars “Global War on Terrorism” Invasion Of Afghanistan Dates 2001-now
Who is this “war” between? Countries US Afghanistan
WHY?? US searching for Bin Laden b/c of Sept. 11 attacks
September 11, 2001 On 9/11 terrorists hijacked 4 planes headed to east coast California 2 jets crashed into the World Trade Center towers in NYC The 3 rd plane crashed into the pentagon in Washington, DC The 4 th plane crashed into an open field in Pennsylvania after the passengers fought back
September 11, 2001 The United States Government treated the attacks as an act of war. Two wars would ensue. American troops went on the hunt for Osama Bin-Laden, the founder and head of Al- Qaeda in the mountainous region of Afghanistan.
Who was behind the 9/11 attacks An Islamic terrorist organization known as Al-Qaeda It’s members believe that the U.S. and its allies are evil Their Leader Osama Bin Laden, son of a wealthy Saudi Arabian businessman, was living in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's government was controlled by Islamic extremists called the Taliban The Taliban was protecting Bin Laden
Osama Bin Laden Upon the Soviet Union’s entry into Afghanistan in 1979, Osama Bin Laden concentrated his funds and efforts on creating an Islamic jihad (war) organization. The Mujahedeen, an Afghan freedom fighting force would be trained and armed by the U.S. CIA. With the aid of the US, the Soviet Union was forced to leave Afghanistan in defeat.
Osama Bin Laden cont. 3 years later, the Persian Gulf war brought American troops into the ME. Bin-Laden was furious b/c he thought the US, a predominantly Christian nation, did not belong on Muslim lands. Bin-Laden issued a Fatwa, an Islamic proclamation, for Jihad or religious war, against the US. Bin-Laden focused the full attention of Al-Qaeda on the US and other western countries. They attacked the World Trade Center in 1993, the USS Cole off the coast of Yemen. But it was the September 11 attacks that roused the US to hunt him down with the full force of the military. After 9 years and 2 wars Bin-Laden was found and killed in Pakistan by the Navy Seals. He was buried at sea.
The USS Cole is carried for repairs after it was attacked by Al-Qaeda in 2001
What did the U.S. do? Demanded that the Taliban turn over Bin laden They refused – Oct. 2001 US began bombing Taliban air defenses and air fields and command centers They also struck several al-Qaeda training camps Us provided support to rebel groups who opposed the Taliban
The War in Afghanistan The war was a military operation to hunt down and capture the people responsible for the 9/11 attacks. The local Afghan government, the Taliban, supported Al- Qaeda and the US removed them from power. They are currently fighting alongside other insurgents including Al- Qaeda. The war in Afghanistan has proven to be a long and difficult one b/c of the terrain of the nation and fear of losing civilian lives. Some of the insurgents have crossed the border into neighboring Pakistan. Where Bin-Laden was captured.
Outcomes: 1. Many die 2. Longest US war 3. Cost $Billions 4. By December, 2011 – the Taliban was weakened and the U.S. killed Osama bin Laden
Countries involved US Iraq Britain Kuwait (marched through to Iraq)
WHY?? US feared WMDs and Hussein’s power Al-Qaeda growing Feared more terrorist attacks
Key Events Saddam Hussein captured and killed Iraqi army defeated The last U.S. troops left Iraqi territory on December 18, 2011
What happened to Saddam? Captured in December of 2003 Charged by the Iraqi’s with war crimes Charged with the murder of 148 people Illegal arrest of 399 people Torture of women and children Found guilty and sentenced to death in 2006