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Institut für Wissenstechnologien 1 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Introduction to Semantic Technologies Viktoria.

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Presentation on theme: "Institut für Wissenstechnologien 1 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Introduction to Semantic Technologies Viktoria."— Presentation transcript:

1 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 1 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Introduction to Semantic Technologies Viktoria Pammer-Schindler, Wolfgang Kienreich October 11, 2012

2 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 2 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Syntax versus Semantics Syntax Greek συνταξις – arrangement, ordering The study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages [Chomsky 1957] Semantics (grch. σημαντικος – about characters The study of interpretation of signs or symbols as used (…) within particular contexts [Neurath et al. 1995]

3 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 3 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Do you pme#? Symbols p,m,e,# Rules A sequence of # starts and ends every sentence Each out of p,m,e is always preceeded by a sequence of # Each out of p,m,e is always followed by a sequence of # The e is always the last out of p,m,e to be used The e is always used exactly once #p#e#, ###m#p#e##, ##p#e#, #m#m#m#p##p##e### p#p#e#, #p##e, ###

4 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 4 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Semantics of pme# #p#e## #p##m#e## ###m##e# #p##e# ##m##e#### ###m##e#####

5 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 5 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Another interpretation of pme# #p#m#e## ##m##e#### ###m##e###### #m#e## #p##m#e## ###m##e#

6 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 6 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro contextualized information applicable for problem solving an ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation knowledge is information in (contextualized) action (application) Semantics and Knowledge [Gruber 1993] [Kuhlen 1995] [Kienreich 2012]

7 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 7 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Semantic Technologies Technologies for working with contextualized information (knowledge?) A priori Explicitly model knowledge A posteriori Extract implicit knowledge

8 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 8 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Semantic Technologies A Posteriori Peak A Priori Summit Mount NLP Machine Learning Ridge Point Statistic Analytical Cliff Knowledge Base First Order Ridge Second Order Valley Ontology hills Data Flow

9 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 9 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Semantic Technologies A Posteriori Peak A Priori Summit Mount NLP Machine Learning Ridge Point Statistic Analytical Cliff Knowledge Base First Order Ridge Second Order Valley Ontology hills Data Flow

10 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 10 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Chris Welty on Semantic Technologies as Bridge Download video

11 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 11 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Semantic Technologies Working with contextualized information (knowledge?) Common understanding: Semantic Technologies are about about encoding meaning and working with it But there is more: Semantic Search Semantic Web Semantic Mediation … Many areas (search…) are saturated with standard (statistical, non context-aware) methods. New, semantic methods are required for the next step

12 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 12 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Semantic Technologies Example: Semantic Search Information retrieval, search solutions Indexing of documents based on terms Fast term lookup to find documents Spell Checking, Query Expansion, Related Terms, Did You Mean, Result facetation … Need more than just terms in document Thessaurus approach to erichment and retrieval Thessaurus is modelled knowledge

13 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 13 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Semantic Technologies Example: Identify semantics in news articles Wegen einer Presseaussendung der Staatsanwaltschaft Wien zu einer Hausdurchsuchung klagt der frühere Finanzminister Karl-Heinz Grasser die Republik Österreich. Mit der Klage will er seinen Anspruch auf Schadenersatz feststellen. Die Staatsanwaltschaft Wien habe durch ihre Aussendung anlässlich der Hausdurchsuchungen beim Ex-Minister am 26. Mai 2011 Grassers Persönlichkeitsrechte verletzt und insbesondere seinen wirtschaftlichen Ruf beschädigt, heißt es in der Klage beim Landesgericht für Zivilrechtssachen. Konkret klagt Grassers Anwalt Michael Rami auf Feststellung eines Schadenersatzanspruches im Rahmen der Amtshaftung für die Justizorgane. Die Klage richtet sich gegen den Bund, der durch die Finanzprokuratur vertreten wird. Propose some methods, consider a priori and a posteriori

14 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 14 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Semantic Web? The WWW has problems Content formatted to be human-readable Many visions require machine understanding Search Cross-Language Fact Validation Contextualization => Semantic Web

15 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 15 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Semantic Systems The WWW is not alone with its problems Enterprise Information Systems Smart mobile systems … Semantic Systems Ballance between a-priori modelling to ease ai tasks a-posteriori methods for problem solving

16 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 16 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro What do we need to do? Extract knowledge (manually or automatic) Model knowledge Reason about knowledge (Expand, Verfiy, Proof…) Make knowledge available (Query …) Display knowledge (Visualization)

17 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 17 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro What do we have? *lots* of technologies A priori knowledge representation: skos, rdf, rdfs, (xtm), owl triple stores: jena, sesame querying: sparql A posteriori Information retrieval Machine learning Social software, tagging, crowdsourcing…

18 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 18 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro What will we talk about Focus on A priori knowledge representation data modelling semantic technologies storage retrieval related topics

19 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 19 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Semantic (Web) Stack http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Semantic-web-stack.png

20 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 20 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Representing Semantics SO P With Triples

21 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 21 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Modelling Standards http://www.mkbergman.com/wp- content/themes/ai3/images/2008Posts/080606_SemanticTechnologies.jpghttp://www.mkbergman.com/445/no-semantic-technologies

22 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 22 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Storage Standards http://www.garshol.priv.no/blog/231.html

23 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 23 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Semantic (Web) Stack http://bnode.org/media/2009/07/08/semantic_web_technology_stack.png

24 Institut für Wissenstechnologien 24 V. Pammer-Schindler, W. Kienreich Oct 11, 2012 VU SemTech 2012 - Intro Questions?


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