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Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 1 Computernetze 1 (CN1) 2.9 Ethernet Frame Prof. Dr. Andreas Steffen Institute for Internet Technologies.

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Presentation on theme: "Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 1 Computernetze 1 (CN1) 2.9 Ethernet Frame Prof. Dr. Andreas Steffen Institute for Internet Technologies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 1 Computernetze 1 (CN1) 2.9 Ethernet Frame Prof. Dr. Andreas Steffen Institute for Internet Technologies and Applications

2 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 2 Lesestoff im Ethernet Buch Kapitel 2 Ethernet, Seiten 71-83 2.10 Frameformate bei Ethernet

3 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 3 DATA Ethernet Rahmenformate Bytes 7 1 6 6 2 46 … 1500 4 DATAFCSPreambleSFDDASA IEEE 802.3 Ethernet II (DIX) IFGPT 802.2 LLC 802.2 SNAP Preamble SFDDASAFCSIFGPreamble LENLLC PAD MAC Rahmengrösse 64 … 1518 Bytes Unterscheidungsmerkmal zwischen DIX und 802.3 Maximale Payload Länge ist 1500 Bytes (0x05DC) Ethernet Payload Types (PT) haben Werte grösser als 1500, z.B. IP: 0x0800, ARP: 0x0806, AppleTalk: 0x809B, Novell: 0x8137, 0x8138

4 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 4 Felder im Ethernet-Frame Preamble 7 Bytes 1-0-1-0 Sequenz zur Bit-Synchronisation SFD (Start-of-Frame Delimiter) 1 Byte 10101011 zur Byte-Synchronisation, Beginn des MAC-Frames DA (Destination Address) 6 Bytes Hardware Adresse des gewünschten Empfängers SA (Source Address) 6 Bytes Hardware Adresse des Senders LEN (IEEE 802.3 Length) oder PT (DIX Ethertype) 2 Bytes Länge der LLC PDU oder Ethernet Payload Type DATA / PAD (Padding) 46...1500 Bytes Padding mit 0x00 garantiert minimale Paketdauer für CSMA/CD FCS (Frame Check Sequence) 4 Bytes 32 Bit Cyclic-Redundancy-Check (CRC-32) IFG (Inter Frame Gap) 12 Bytes Minimaler Abstand zwischen zwei Ethernet-Frames

5 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 5 MAC Adressierung - UNICAST One-to-One: UNICAST Frame 00-0C-00-00-00-01 Sent directly to MAC address of Host 2 This frame is for me 00-0C-00-12-34-56 VENDOR Code (OUI) 24 Bits Unique Number 24 Bits Unique MAC Hardware Address: 00-0C-00-00-00-02

6 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 6 One-to-All: BROADCAST To special destination MAC Address (Broadcast Address) Frame We MUST all process this frame !! - Must be received by all stations - Can be a severe burden especially to slow systems and appliances - Should be used as little as possible - Main obstacle in large flat networks 00-0C-00-00-00-01 FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF

7 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 7 One-to-Many: MULTICAST Frame I dont care about that frame To special destination MAC Address (group address) - IP Multicast Addresses map to Ethernet Multicast Addresses - Efficient Mechanism for Group Traffic (Video, Spanning Tree, etc.) - Usually locally controlled by additional Protocols (CGMP, IGMP, RGMP, GMRP) - Globally controlled by Multicast routing 00-0C-00-00-00-01 01-80-C2-00-00-00

8 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 8 Medium Access Control (MAC)- Adressen Individual/Group Bit (erstes Bit, LSB der DA): I/G=0: Individual Address I/G=1: Group Address (Broadcast / Multicast) Universal/Local Bit: U/L=0: Universally (globally) Administered Address U/L=1: Locally Administered Address Manufacturer Code LSB MSB

9 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 9 Manufacturer Codes 00-00-0CCisco 00-02-55IBM 00-09-7BCisco 00-AA-00Intel 00-0B-5DFujitsu (Broadcom Gigabit Ethernet NIC) 00-20-AF 3COM Corporation 00-0D-88 D-Link 08-00-09Hewlett-Packard 08-00-20 Sun What is your PCs OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier)? Look it up at: Each OUI allows to uniquely address 2 24 = 16777216 NICs

10 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 10 Multicast Adressen 01-80-C2-00-00-00Spanning tree (for bridges), Ethertype: -802- 01-80-C2-00-00-10 Bridge Management, Ethertype: -802- 01-00-5E-00-00-00DoD Internet Multicast (RFC 1112), Ethertype: 0800 CF-00-00-00-00-00Ethernet Configuration Test protocol (Loopback), Ethertype: 9000

11 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 11 Bestimmung der MAC-Adresse Windows: ipconfig Unix/Linux: ifconfig Beispiel: satay# ifconfig eth0 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0D:88:3C:30:F9 inet addr: Bcast: Mask: inet6 addr: fe80::20d:88ff:fe3c:30f9/64

12 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 12 Computernetze 1 (CN1) 2.10 Logical Link Control Layer (LLC)

13 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 13 14 1 1 1..2 43..1497 4 Bytes LLC Header Format LLC header is prepended to higher layer data DSAP (Destination Service Access Point), 8 bits SSAP (Source Service Access Point), 8 bits Control Field, 8 or 16 bits LLC PDU is encapsulated in MAC frame MAC HeaderDSAPSSAPControlMAC TrailerDATA LLC Header Layer3 Payload

14 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 14 DSAP and SSAP Destination Service Access Point and Source SAP identify the higher level protocol, which is the destination and the source of the given frame are a kind of protocol type or protocol stack identifier D D D I/GU 0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 7 U=0: User defined U=1: IEEE defined SSAPDSAP I/G=0: Individual DSAP I/G=1: Group DSAP C/R=0: Command C/R=1: Response C/RU11M P/FM M MD D D Control LLC Type 1

15 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 15 Values for DSAP / SSAP Field 128 values possible for I/G = 0 63 are reserved for IEEE protocols (U =1) 63 for vendor specific protocols and for free application usage (U = 0) SAP Examples: 0x00 Null SAP station with running LLC software always responds to a frame destined to the Null SAP -> LLC Ping can be implemented 0x03 LLC sub-layer management (U=1) 0x06 DoD IP (U=1) 0x42 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol (U=1) 0xAA SNAP sub-layer (U=1) [0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1] 0xFE ISO Network Layer (U=1)

16 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 16 Values for LLC Control Field LLC Control field and protocol procedures are similar to HDLC HDLC procedures allow connection-less and connection-oriented services on a layer 2 link Connection-less mode is used by IP, IPX, AppleTalk, etc. over LLC Type 1 Connection-oriented mode is used by SNA over LLC Type 2 NetBIOS over LLC Type 2 (NetBEUI) e.g. in Microsoft Peer-to-Peer Network

17 Steffen/Stettler, 26.09.2013, 2b-Ethernet_Frame.ppt 17 Sub Net Access Protocol (SNAP) SNAP header is prepended to higher layer data OUI (Organizational Unit Identifier), 3 bytes Ethernet Type, 2 bytes In an IP-based Network OUI: 00-00-00 Ethertype: 0x0800 (IP), 0x0806 (ARP) MAC HeaderLLC Header Ethernet Type MAC TrailerDATA SNAP Header Layer3 Payload 14 3 3 2 38..1492 4 Bytes OUI

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