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Creating Blue Oceans Hilary Becker, Ph.D. Carleton University

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Presentation on theme: "Creating Blue Oceans Hilary Becker, Ph.D. Carleton University"— Presentation transcript:

1 Creating Blue Oceans Hilary Becker, Ph.D. Carleton University
* These slides are based on the work of Kim and Mauborgne in their book Blue Ocean Strategy, Harvard Business Press 2005.

2 Cirque du Soleil Why do blue oceans exist?
Business and markets never stands still Achieved rapid growth in declining market Found new market space Customer focus Eliminated animal acts Introduced Theater ideas and storyline Offer fun and thrill of circus with sophistication of theater.

3 Cirque du Soleil Cirque du Soleil Theater Circus

All unknown markets or markets not in existence today Industry boundaries are undefined Competitive rules unknown and companies look for demand creation Established markets. All known markets in existence Industry boundaries are defined Competitive rules known and companies compete on traditional methods

5 Blue Oceans Created (generally) from expansion of red oceans.
Management ideas, opportunities, SWOT, Environmental scan, R&D, Technology No Competition – No competitors Traditional focus of strategic management based on red ocean strategies analyze underlying economic structure, determining strategic position/strategy Benchmarking industry Convergence to target market

6 Examples in past 30 years Mutual funds Cell phones Biotechnology
Coffee bars (Starbucks) Home video, VCD, DVD CD, MP3, IPOD Minivans Snowboards/In-line skates Internet Bacardi Rum CNN Microsoft Southwest Airlines Cirque du Soleil Big Screen TV/LCD/Plasma Celebrity Clothing/Perfume Lines

7 New Business Launches Launches from Red Oceans Business launch 86% 14%
Revenue Impact 62% 38% Profit Impact 39% 61% Launches from Blue Oceans

8 Driving Forces of Blue Ocean
Globalization Firms looking to expand beyond local borders to gain efficiencies and increase profitability Decline of trade barriers, niche markets and monopolies Development of economic free trade zones and clustering (European Union, Caribbean Common Market). Increasing supply without increasing demand is forcing companies to look for new markets/opportunities Technology & Telecommunications Decreased cost, increased efficiency, greater flexibility Increased communications Allows foreign companies to effectively manage international operations (Favors creation of IJV) Improved industrial productivity Limited competitive advantage for technological advances (shorter time horizon) Organizational Structure Flatter, flexible and mobile Strategic Alliances and JV Bureaucracy: Persists but at a different level Focus on Environment Sustainable Development (Balanced Scorecard)

9 Driving Forces of Blue Ocean
Accounting & Finance Harmonization of Accounting Principles Importance of International Monetary Management Managing Foreign Exchange Human Resources Work Teams (multiculturalism) Flexibility Increased training and cross-training Communication Coordination of Activity Management Geocentric: view entire world as one organization Polycentric: view host country cultures are different and allow operations to be managed more autonomously Ethnocentric: view home-country standards to be superior.

10 Results Accelerated commoditization of products and services
As products become standardized, selection is based more on prices Increasing price wars Shrinking profit margins

11 Strategic Moves to succeed
Research has shown that a move to Blue Ocean has identified commonalities in strategic moves. Strategic move: The set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Commonality seems to exist in strategic moves by all firms finding blue oceans. However, there was not commonality in types of firms: small/large - attractive/unattractive industries Young/mature - private/public Low/hi tech - diverse national origins The basis of Blue Ocean Strategy is in developing Value Innovation.

12 Value Innovation Instead of focusing on competition, focus on making the competition irrelevant by creating a leap in value for buyers, and opening uncontested market space. Value without innovation – red ocean strategy of value creation on incremental scale (new bells or whistles) Innovation without value – red ocean technology innovation (often beyond what consumers are ready to accept or pay for). Value innovation occurs when companies align innovation with utility, price and cost positions thereby defying the traditional Cost-Value Tradeoff. Focus on differentiation and low cost simultaneously

13 Value Innovation Costs Simultaneous pursuit of Differentiation and Low
***** Buyer value

14 Blue Ocean vs. Red Ocean

15 Formulating and Executing Blue Ocean Strategy
General belief (red ocean) that going beyond existing industry space is low odds of success. Most business strategy is red ocean focused. Based on 6 principles Decreasing search risk, planning risk, scale risk, business model risk, organizational risk and management risk.

16 Six Principles of Blue Ocean Strategy - Summary
Formulation Principles Reconstruct market boundaries Focus on big picture, not numbers Reach beyond existing demand Get the strategic sequence straight Execution Principles Overcome key organizational hurdles Build execution into strategy Risk Factors Decrease search risk Decrease planning risk Decrease scale risk Decrease business model risk Risk Factor Organizational risk Management risk

17 Four Guiding Formulation Principles
Identify paths to systematically create uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant (search risk) Design strategic planning to go beyond incremental improvements to create value innovations (planning risk) Maximize the blue ocean to create the greatest market of new demand. (scale risk) Design strategy to allow companies to provide a leap in value to buyers and build viable business model to produce and maintain profitable growth for itself. (business model risk).

18 Two Guiding Execution Principles
Mobilize the organization to overcome key organizational hurdles that block implementation of a blue ocean. (Organizational risk) Motivating people to act on and execute a blue ocean strategy (management risk).

19 Analytical Tools and Framework
The Blue Ocean Analytical Tools and Framework

20 Red Ocean Governed by existing framework of strategic management
Porter 5 Forces model Three Generic Strategies Value Chain management Offer better solutions than rivals to existing problems defined by industry Effective Blue Ocean seeks to minimize risk not maximize risk Take notes from Entrepreneurs, learn and apply to new situations Create entrepreneurial framework within organizational structure (Ex. 3M – Post-it Notes)

21 Wine Industry Intense competition (8 main competitors) What to do?
Leverage distribution, shelf space and marketing driven Downward pressure on prices Increasing bargaining power of distribution channel and flat demand What to do? Develop a strategy canvas Analytical framework that is central to value innovation and creating a blue ocean.

22 Strategy Canvas Purpose: Wine industry Price per bottle Refined Image
Capture current state of play in market space Develop an action Framework Wine industry 7 principle factors Price per bottle Refined Image Marketing Aging of wine Legacy of vineyard Complexity and sophistication Range of wines

23 Strategy Canvas Marketing Range Price Legacy Aging High Low Complexity
Terminology Marketing Aging Legacy Complexity Range

24 Strategy Canvas - Analysis
Convergence in values, but at different levels between premium (differentiation) and (low cost) Look for uncontested market space. Re-orient strategic focus from competitors to alternatives, from customers to non-customers. Casella Wines – Yellow Label

25 Four Actions Framework
Reconstruct buyer value 4 Key Questions: Which of the factors that industry takes for granted should be eliminated? Environmental Scan – factors companies have long competed on. Which factors should be reduced well below the industry’s standards? Which products or services have been overdesigned? Which factors should be raised well above the industry’s standards? Uncover and eliminate the compromises the industry has forced on customers. Which factors should be created that the industry has never offered? Helps to discover new sources of value for buyers and to create demand.

26 Four Actions Framework
Reduce Which factors to Reduce? Eliminate Which factors to Eliminate? A New Value Curve Create Which factors to Create? Raise Which factors to Raise?

27 Eliminate-Reduce-Raise-Create Grid
Key to creating Blue Oceans. Four immediate benefits Simultaneously pursue differentiation and low-cost strategies to break Value-Cost Tradeoff. Flags companies that are focused on raising and creating (thus increasing cost structure and over-engineering products and services) Easily understood and communicated Drives company to scrutinize every factor the industry competes upon.

28 Yellow Tail Developed a fun new drink not pretentious
Reduced aging (less capital cost) Ease of selection by reducing wine offerings (Chardonnay and Shiraz) Removed technical jargon from bottles Simple, eye catching non-traditional label Wine boxes were simple and used for display Advertising in stores with clerk outfits Offered a LEAP IN VALUE to customers.

29 ERRC Grid – Yellow Tail Eliminate - Terminology and distinction Raise
Aging quality Above the line marketing Raise Price vs. budget wine Retail store environment Reduce Wine complexity Wine range Vineyard Prestige Create Easy drinking Ease of selection Fun and adventure

30 Yellow Tail – Strategic Canvas
High Low Price Terminology Marketing Aging Legacy Complexity Range Easy drinking Easy Selection Fun

31 Characteristics of a Good Strategy
Focus The company does not diffuse efforts across all key factors of competition Divergence The shape of the value curve diverges from that of its competition Company does not act reactively Compelling Tagline Strategic profile is clear and concise to customers. Used to develop marketing campaign

32 Reading the Value Curves (6 Ways)
Blue Ocean Strategy Whether 3 criteria for good blue ocean strategy are met (focus, divergence, tagline), this is a litmus test for commercial viability of blue ocean. Company caught in Red Ocean Companies value curve converges with competitors Company is attempting to compete head to head with competitors (slower growth and potential) Overdelivery without Payback If value curve is higher across all factors, Does Market share and profitability reflect investment?

33 Reading the Value Curves (6 Ways)
An Incoherent Strategy All over the map, it signals it does not have a cohesive and coherent strategy, likely based upon independent sub-strategies (divisional or functional silos). Strategic Contradictions Offering high level on one competing factor while ignoring others that support that factor. (ex. Self serve gasoline at higher prices) Internally Driven Companies How does it label its factors (If highly technical, built on internal perspective rather than external perspective).

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