Presentation on theme: "INDIVIDUALS GROUPSINDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS The term ‘interpersonal’ focuses on the bond between two people, and the behavior between these two individuals."— Presentation transcript:
The term ‘interpersonal’ focuses on the bond between two people, and the behavior between these two individuals will depend on the context of their relationship.
Two or more people who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person.
In any organization, individuals must get together periodically to decide how to solve important problems and to exchange the information necessary to coordinate their activities. Meetings, workshops, conferences, focus groups, and self-directed work teams require additional communication skills because they involve communicating with more than one person at a time.
Formal groups are those that have a specific task or objective. People may belong to formal groups either because they share a common concern or because they are assigned to the group by their organization.
Informational. Staff meetings, conferences, and briefings are examples of informational groups. These groups are useful when the group members need the same information at the same time and when management wants to ensure exposure to the information and provide opportunity for questions and discussion.
Education-and-training. Most large organizations have entire departments whose sole purpose is to discover what employees need to know and to arrange for education and training. These departments orient employees to new programs, correct educational deficiencies, and introduce new and pertinent information. Smaller organizations also use groups for these same functions. College classes and in-service seminars and workshops are examples of education-and- training groups.
Problem-solving. Any group with a particular task or specific objective is a problem- solving group. The group may be formal or informal, and the problem may range from preliminary discussions, to planning, to implementing decisions.
Informal groups are formed to foster improved interpersonal relationships rather than to accomplish any particular task or objective. Coffee-break gatherings, group lunches, and organizational golf outings and bowling or softball teams are among the most common informal groups in organizations. The communication skills required in informal groups are essentially interpersonal skills. It is only when an informal group assumes a task—becoming for the moment a formal group—that other skills are required.
Forming Members first get together during this stage.. Clear and strong leadership is required from the team leader during this stage to ensure the group members feel the clarity and comfort required to evolve to the next stage.
Storming During this stage, members are beginning to voice their individual differences, join with others who share the same beliefs, and jockey for position in the group.
Norming In this stage, members are beginning to share a common commitment to the purpose of the group, including to its overall goals and how each of the goals can be achieved.
Performing In this stage, the team is working effectively and efficiently toward achieving its goals. During this stage, the style of leadership becomes more indirect as members take on stronger participation and involvement in the group process.
Adjourning: Escape from high task performance to wrapping up activities.
Formation Leadershi p Communi cation Cohesion Norms Changing Norms
Formation of informal groups: Sense of belonging Identity and self-esteem Stress reduction All for one and one for all
Leadership: Rotational leadership. The informal leader emerges as the individual possessing qualities that the other members perceive as critical to the satisfaction of their specific needs at the moment; as the needs change, so does the leader.
Communication: The informal group has communications that processes that are smoother and less cumbersome than those of the formal organization. Thus its procedures are easily changed to meet the communication needs of the group.
Cohesion (the force that holds a group together and it is based on the following factors): Size of the group Dependence of members upon the group Achievement of goals Status of the group Management demands and pressure
Norms (Values): The establishment of the group’s norms. Norms are very important in controlling behavior and measuring the performance of members. Changing norms: A supervisor should attempt to encourage norms that positively affect the formal organization’s goals and to alter those that are negative.
Interactive behavior: Behaviors that are co affected. Conflict: To come into collision or disagreement.
When an individual is confronted with a problem in decision making for himself: Goal conflict: It occurs when a person is forced to choose between two goals where the attainment of one goal excludes the possibility of attaining the other goal. Role Conflict: Here the conflict is because of the need of an individual to play several roles but without enough time or resources.
An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals A situation in which an individual or group frustrates, or tries to frustrate, the goal attainment efforts of the other.individualgroupgoal