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What Do Scientists Do? Quiz 1C.

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Presentation on theme: "What Do Scientists Do? Quiz 1C."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Do Scientists Do? Quiz 1C

2 How does the process of scientific investigation work?
Scientists use a series of procedures called the scientific method (sometimes referred to as scientific inquiry).

3 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD an organized way of arriving at a workable solution to a problem (a logical procedure for choosing an answer to a question)

4 Steps of the Scientific Method
Establish the problem Form a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Classify and analyze the data Choose and verify the answer Predict outcomes

5 steps of scientific method listing in textbook

6 (1) Establish the problem
This process often begins with a problem or question about an observation.

7 Questions come from experiences that you have and from observations and inferences that you make.

8 Some questions cannot be investigated by science.
Does my dog eat more food than my cat? Which makes a better pet – a cat or a dog?

9 (1) Establish the problem
problem: a question that may be answered by the use of the scientific method The problem must: • fall within the limitations of science • be observable • be measurable • be repeatable

10 (1) Establish the problem
Establishing the problem involves background research and limiting (defining) the problem.

11 Background research reading books and talking to qualified people about the topic or the problem

12 Limiting the problem means stating the problem carefully

13 (2) Form a hypothesis hypothesis: a possible solution; an educated guess (a prediction that can be tested)

14 (3) Test the Hypothesis A scientist will then gather evidence that will either support or disprove the hypothesis. This is done one of two ways: • by conducting an experiment • by conducting a survey

15 (3) Test the Hypothesis This information (evidence) is called data.
data: pieces of information (facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations) Data must be measured and recorded accurately.

16 What’s in an Experiment?
Experimental variable Experimental group Control group

17 Experimental Variable
a condition that affects the result of an experiment (also known as independent variable or manipulated variable or experimental factor) A variable is something in an experiment that can change. Each experiment should have only one variable.

18 the group that is exposed to the experimental variable
Experimental Group the group that is exposed to the experimental variable

19 A control is the standard to which the outcome of a test is compared.
Control Group the group, in an experiment, that is not exposed to the experimental variable A control is the standard to which the outcome of a test is compared.

20 Survey a set of observations that are made to determine what is a common practice in a particular area

21 (4) Classify and analyze the data
classify: arranging data so relationships can be seen

22 Classify often involves grouping or sorting the data (making a chart or table) which makes answers easier to find Graphs can reveal patterns or trends in data.

23 (4) Classify and analyze the data
analyzing: determining whether a set of data supports a hypothesis

24 (5) Choose and Verify the Answer
Once an answer is chosen, it must be verified.

25 How do you verify and answer?
By gathering additional data through experiments or surveys. The more data that is found to support the answer, the more likely it is that the answer is correct.

26 How do you verify and answer?
Proving and verifying are not the same. A scientist can never completely prove an answer. Why? Because it is based on observations done by humans who make mistakes. The goal is to find a workable answer. workable: able to be used successfully

27 (6) Predict Outcomes predict: to make a statement about the expected future outcome of a certain action

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