6 (1) Establish the problem This process often begins with a problem or question about an observation.
7 Questions come from experiences that you have and from observations and inferences that you make.
8 Some questions cannot be investigated by science. Does my dog eat more food than my cat?Which makes a better pet – a cat or a dog?
9 (1) Establish the problem problem: a question that may be answered by the use of the scientific methodThe problem must:• fall within the limitations of science• be observable• be measurable• be repeatable
10 (1) Establish the problem Establishing the problem involves background research and limiting (defining) the problem.
11 Background researchreading books and talking to qualified people about the topic or the problem
12 Limiting the problemmeans stating the problem carefully
13 (2) Form a hypothesishypothesis: a possible solution; an educated guess (a prediction that can be tested)
14 (3) Test the HypothesisA scientist will then gather evidence that will either support or disprove the hypothesis.This is done one of two ways:• by conducting an experiment• by conducting a survey
15 (3) Test the Hypothesis This information (evidence) is called data. data: pieces of information (facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations)Data must be measuredand recorded accurately.
16 What’s in an Experiment? Experimental variableExperimental groupControl group
17 Experimental Variable a condition that affects the result of an experiment (also known as independent variable or manipulated variable or experimental factor)A variable is something in an experiment that can change. Each experiment should have only one variable.
18 the group that is exposed to the experimental variable Experimental Groupthe group that is exposed to the experimental variable
19 A control is the standard to which the outcome of a test is compared. Control Groupthe group, in an experiment, that is not exposed to the experimental variableA control is the standard to which the outcome of a test is compared.
20 Surveya set of observations that are made to determine what is a common practice in a particular area
21 (4) Classify and analyze the data classify: arranging data so relationships can be seen
22 Classifyoften involves grouping or sorting the data (making a chart or table) which makes answers easier to findGraphs can reveal patterns or trends in data.
23 (4) Classify and analyze the data analyzing: determining whether a set of data supports a hypothesis
24 (5) Choose and Verify the Answer Once an answer is chosen, it must be verified.
25 How do you verify and answer? By gathering additional data through experiments or surveys.The more data that is found to support the answer, the more likely it is that the answer is correct.
26 How do you verify and answer? Proving and verifying are not the same. A scientist can never completely prove an answer.Why? Because it is based on observations done by humans who make mistakes.The goal is to find a workable answer.workable: able to be used successfully
27 (6) Predict Outcomespredict: to make a statement about the expected future outcome of a certain action