Presentation on theme: "The Arab Empire Pgs 292-299 Lesson 3. Caliphs Govern the Empire New Muslim leaders were called Caliphs. “Caliph” mean successor (to Muhammad). The ruled."— Presentation transcript:
Caliphs Govern the Empire New Muslim leaders were called Caliphs. “Caliph” mean successor (to Muhammad). The ruled the caliphate:
Caliphs Religious, political, and military leaders. Goal: to expand Islam. Trained holy armies of Muslim soldiers to conquer other lands. Soldiers believed if they died in battle they would enter paradise.
Religious Tolerance Typically new Muslim leadership allowed Jews and Christians to practice their own religion. –Had to pay a higher tax Not required to become Muslim, if conquered. Many areas didn’t like the current leadership, so welcomed new Muslim rule.
Growth of the Muslim Empire Within 100 years of Muhammad’s death, Islam had spread throughout the Mediterranean.
Africa & Spain Conquered the coast of Africa, then moved up into Spain. 711AD - Most of Spain was taken. Western capital was Cordoba. –Center of culture. –500,000 population –3,000 mosques –600 year rule Muslim army was defeated in France. –Charles Martel defeats the Muslims in Tours, France.
India Conquered parts of India. Did not try to convert the Hindus. –Lived peacefully for many years.
Baghdad In 762 AD, Caliph al-Mansur builds a capital city on the Tigris river. For 500 years, Baghdad is the capital for the Muslim Caliphate. One of the world’s largest cities. –One million – population –Center of innovation and learning –Library called “the House of Wisdom” 4 main roads led to all the ends of the empire –Largest trading community –Specialized in goods from all over the empire.
Paper-making 751AD – Muslims adopted the Chinese practice of making paper. Used extensively throughout the empire. –Aids learning –Cheaper and better for book-making than parchment or papyrus. Ream = Arabic for bundle http://www.islamics pain.tv/Islamic- Spain/Making_Pap er.gifhttp://www.islamics pain.tv/Islamic- Spain/Making_Pap er.gif
Learning in the Muslim Empire Muslims value ideas, education and learning. Scholars were encouraged to preserve all notable works from around the world.
Knowledge Transfers Scholars translated ancient Greek, Roman, Indian, Hebrew and Chinese writings into Arabic – and then learned from them. Muslim academics made improvements on the ideas they learned from reading.
Baghdad Library Ordinary people could read books in public libraries. 36 public libraries in Baghdad!
Medicine of Islam Developed hospitals & pharmacies. Doctors had to pass tests. No fee to be treated. Traveling hospitals moved around the empire. Muhammad al Razi – “Rhazes” wrote a huge medical encyclopedia to teach doctors how to treat illnesses. Iben Sinah “Avicenna” wrote a medical text used for 600 years. –Germs, stress, & surgery
Mathemathics Studied the ancient Greeks. Adopted number from India. Algebra was developed by Muslim math scholars.
Astronomy Islamic calendar is based on the moon’s movement. Perfected the astrolabe to aid in navigation.
Art No religious pictures may have human or animal forms on them. Worked with abstract designs –Arabesques may be geometric or flowing, leafy designs –Calligraphy, or beautiful handwriting, was used to write Arabic words.
Architecture Many beautiful mosques were built. Minarets are the tall towers used to call the faithful to prayer. Domes were used.
Literature Quran was the greatest book of all. Poetry was popular. Folk-tales, such as Arabian Nights, were told. –Ali Baba & the Forty Thieves. –Aladdin –Sinbad the Sailor