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Qué es el Gobierno Electrónico? Professor Helen Margetts Oxford Internet Institute University of Oxford www.governmentontheweb.orgwww.governmentontheweb.org,

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Presentation on theme: "Qué es el Gobierno Electrónico? Professor Helen Margetts Oxford Internet Institute University of Oxford www.governmentontheweb.orgwww.governmentontheweb.org,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Qué es el Gobierno Electrónico? Professor Helen Margetts Oxford Internet Institute University of Oxford www.governmentontheweb.orgwww.governmentontheweb.org, www.oii.ox.ac.uk www.oii.ox.ac.uk

2 What is e-government? The use by government of the internet and related information technologies internally and to communicate with citizens, businesses, NGOs and other governments The use by government of the internet and related information technologies internally and to communicate with citizens, businesses, NGOs and other governments

3 The electronic element of government 1950s: Bureaucracy + defence, scientific IT 1950s: Bureaucracy + defence, scientific IT 1960s - 70s: Bureaucracy + large scale computer systems 1960s - 70s: Bureaucracy + large scale computer systems 1970s - 80s: Bureaucracy + databases, networks of PCs 1970s - 80s: Bureaucracy + databases, networks of PCs 1990s – 00s: Bureaucracy + Government on the Web 1990s – 00s: Bureaucracy + Government on the Web Internet and web-based technologies offer real possibility of transformation of state-societal relationships – in contrast to earlier information technologies which were largely internally facing Government IT now > 1% of GDP of most industrialised states (UK spends £14 billion annually) Government IT now > 1% of GDP of most industrialised states (UK spends £14 billion annually)

4 How is e-government different from government? More bureaucratic – increased rationalization? More bureaucratic – increased rationalization? More chaotic – increase in fluidity and flexibility? More chaotic – increase in fluidity and flexibility? Transformation Transformation

5 Policy criticality of e-government Functionality of government depends on reliability of large-scale information systems Functionality of government depends on reliability of large-scale information systems eg. taxation, welfare administration, defence, law and order, border control Technological innovation drives policy innovation Technological innovation drives policy innovationeg. Biometric identity cards Biometric identity cards DNA data, genetic data DNA data, genetic data Electronic tagging Electronic tagging Road pricing Road pricing

6 e-government: practice and potential IT central to internal processes of government IT central to internal processes of government Internet allows easy communication between computers – unlike earlier IT Internet allows easy communication between computers – unlike earlier IT Widespread societal usage means real possibility for transformation of governments interactions with society Widespread societal usage means real possibility for transformation of governments interactions with society Web-based innovations cheaper and lower risk (build- and-learn technologies) than earlier IT Web-based innovations cheaper and lower risk (build- and-learn technologies) than earlier IT BUT e-government lags behind e-society & e-commerce in many countries BUT e-government lags behind e-society & e-commerce in many countries WHY? WHY?

7 Challenges for E-government – supply side New web-based initiatives must link with legacy systems New web-based initiatives must link with legacy systems Government online should be more transparent – but can be more complex, confusing, difficult to control Government online should be more transparent – but can be more complex, confusing, difficult to control Governments struggle to maintain technical expertise (and compete with private sector for skills) Governments struggle to maintain technical expertise (and compete with private sector for skills) Most governments outsource large proportion of e- government to private sector computer services providers Most governments outsource large proportion of e- government to private sector computer services providers New markets of providers of government IT develop – all shapes and sizes New markets of providers of government IT develop – all shapes and sizes Relationship management with new players is major part of e-government Relationship management with new players is major part of e-government

8 Challenges for E-government – demand side Citizens interact with governments less than commercial organisations (and often for negative reasons) Citizens interact with governments less than commercial organisations (and often for negative reasons) Citizens must be incentivized to use e-government Citizens must be incentivized to use e-government Digital divides – always some groups who do not have internet access Digital divides – always some groups who do not have internet access So, channel management is important So, channel management is important But, E-government that citizens dont use is E-xpensive government But, E-government that citizens dont use is E-xpensive government

9 Key underlying factors in e-government development Political support for e-government Political support for e-government Financial commitment Financial commitment New public management reform and fragmentation New public management reform and fragmentation Contracting regime: (ratio of market power/expertise vis a vis government) Contracting regime: (ratio of market power/expertise vis a vis government) Government in-house capacity Government in-house capacity Market power of largest firms Market power of largest firms Emphasis on competition Emphasis on competition Administrative culture: cultural barriers Administrative culture: cultural barriers

10 Australia: e-government World leader in e-government up to 1999 World leader in e-government up to 1999 Big agencies lead the field–- Australian Tax Office, Centrelink (social welfare), Employment Big agencies lead the field–- Australian Tax Office, Centrelink (social welfare), EmploymentBUT Joined-up initiatives scattered and episodic – multiple central agencies Joined-up initiatives scattered and episodic – multiple central agencies Failed contracting initiative leaves global providers in dominant position Failed contracting initiative leaves global providers in dominant position

11 UK: e-government High levels of political support High levels of political support Financial commitment and central resources Financial commitment and central resourcesBUT Poor performance of government IT systems (high disaster rate) Poor performance of government IT systems (high disaster rate) Highly oligopolistic contracting regime (top 5 have 90% of market) Highly oligopolistic contracting regime (top 5 have 90% of market) High index of corporate power vis a vis central government High index of corporate power vis a vis central government Administrative culture adverse to Internet innovation Administrative culture adverse to Internet innovation E-government take-up is low E-government take-up is low

12 Canada: e-government World e-government leader in consultancy rankings World e-government leader in consultancy rankings High levels of political support, sound financial commitment and central initiatives High levels of political support, sound financial commitment and central initiatives Across the board success: incremental approach Across the board success: incremental approach Excellent government: industry power ratio (government retains expertise) Excellent government: industry power ratio (government retains expertise)BUT Future success reliant on super-project (the Secure Channel) CA $1.2 billion Future success reliant on super-project (the Secure Channel) CA $1.2 billion …tendered to inter-galactic consortium of contractors …tendered to inter-galactic consortium of contractors

13 New Zealand e-government Many drivers towards e-government success (techno-culture, geographical separation, dispersed country, small population) Many drivers towards e-government success (techno-culture, geographical separation, dispersed country, small population)BUT High levels of organisational fragmentation High levels of organisational fragmentation Low levels of e-government expenditure Low levels of e-government expenditure Very low central government vis a vis corporate power/expertise index Very low central government vis a vis corporate power/expertise index

14 USA e-government High levels of political support and financial commitment High levels of political support and financial commitment Major successes in some areas (eg e-tax benefits from pragmatic approach) Major successes in some areas (eg e-tax benefits from pragmatic approach) Diffuse government IT market (top 5 have 20%) Diffuse government IT market (top 5 have 20%)BUT Lack of central co-ordination Lack of central co-ordination Confusing governmental presence, central portal came late, proliferation of web sites Confusing governmental presence, central portal came late, proliferation of web sites Legacy systems in big agencies remain problem – and spiralling cost Legacy systems in big agencies remain problem – and spiralling cost

15 Netherlands: e-government Innovative and entrepeneurial approach Innovative and entrepeneurial approach High levels of political support High levels of political support Networked culture helps inter-agency co- operation Networked culture helps inter-agency co- operation Good performance of government IT systems Good performance of government IT systems Good government-industry relations and networks (very diffuse market) Good government-industry relations and networks (very diffuse market)BUT Big organisational variations Big organisational variations Lack of central co-ordination Lack of central co-ordination

16 Japan: e-government Highly reliable government IT systems Highly reliable government IT systemsBUT Political support and central initiatives came late Political support and central initiatives came late Autonomous ministries resist collaborative initiatives Autonomous ministries resist collaborative initiatives Oligopolistic contracting regime, dominated by huge domestic players, no in-house expertise Oligopolistic contracting regime, dominated by huge domestic players, no in-house expertise Administrative culture highly adverse to Internet innovation Administrative culture highly adverse to Internet innovation Japan struggles to introduce e-government Japan struggles to introduce e-government

17 How countries rate on measures of the IT industrys power/influence

18 Demand side variation in usage of e- government % total population 200320022001 Netherlands 52 41 31 Canada 51 48 46 Australia 47 46 31 New Zealand 45 40 NA USA 44 43 34 UK 18 13 11 Japan 15 13 17 Source: Taylor Nelson Sofres (2003)

19 Digital-era Governance trends for the future Reintegration – roll back of agencification, joined up governance, in-sourcing, shared services Reintegration – roll back of agencification, joined up governance, in-sourcing, shared services Needs-based holism – one-stop, zero-stop provision, client based organization, end-to-end service re-engineering Needs-based holism – one-stop, zero-stop provision, client based organization, end-to-end service re-engineering Digitisation changes – agencies become their web-sites, electronic services delivery, zero- touch technology, customer segmentation Digitisation changes – agencies become their web-sites, electronic services delivery, zero- touch technology, customer segmentation But none are inevitable

20 Benefits of e-government: raising nodality? Key tool of government is nodality – the property of being in the middle of information or social networks (other tools are authority, treasure and organisation) Key tool of government is nodality – the property of being in the middle of information or social networks (other tools are authority, treasure and organisation) E-government offers tremendous potential for increasing government nodality – even without e-transactions eg. UK has around 10 million web pages E-government offers tremendous potential for increasing government nodality – even without e-transactions eg. UK has around 10 million web pages Nodal e-government will be more visible, more accessible – and cheaper Nodal e-government will be more visible, more accessible – and cheaper BUT, government faces new competition for nodality: BUT, government faces new competition for nodality: Competition from e-commerce, other e-governments, e-banks, e-travel companies, e-media....... Competition from e-commerce, other e-governments, e-banks, e-travel companies, e-media....... Most people use search – so nodality of e-government in hands of Google, MSN etc. Most people use search – so nodality of e-government in hands of Google, MSN etc.

21 Developing healthy e-government? Healthy e-government High visibility (high number of in-links, high on search engine rankings) High visibility (high number of in-links, high on search engine rankings) Interconnectedness (small world characteristics) – dependent on size, structure etc. Interconnectedness (small world characteristics) – dependent on size, structure etc. With a healthy domain, government gains nodality in the on-line world With a healthy domain, government gains nodality in the on-line world Unhealthy e-government Suffers net loss of nodality in internet world - Suffers net loss of nodality in internet world - if other organisations are more sophisticated at increasing visibility, structuring domains.... if other organisations are more sophisticated at increasing visibility, structuring domains.... government can lose a (global) competition it was not aware of entering government can lose a (global) competition it was not aware of entering And e-government becomes less – not more - efficient And e-government becomes less – not more - efficient

22 Qué es el Gobierno Electrónico?


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