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Law, Justice, & You Unit 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Law, Justice, & You Unit 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Law, Justice, & You Unit 1

2 Types of Laws Goals: Explain how constitutional, statutory, case, and administrative laws are created Explain how to resolve conflicts between constitutional , statutory, case, and administrative laws Describe the differences between criminal and civil, substantive and procedural, and business and other forms of law Laws are created at all three levels of government: federal, state, local

3 Constitutions Document that sets forth the framework of a government and its relationship to the people it governs You are governed by the Constitution of the United States Constitution of the state of California The Supreme Court of the U.S. is the final interpreter of the federal constitution. The California Supreme Court is the final authority of the state constitution.

4 Constitutions Federal and state constitutions define and allocate certain powers into our society Allocate powers Between the people and their government Between state governments and the federal government Among the branches of the government

5 Constitutions Allocation of power between people and government
Federal Constitution is the main instrument Bill of Rights First ten amendments Protects people from actions of their government


7 Constitutions Allocation of power between federal and state governments Example with business and commerce: The constitution gives the federal governnemt the power to regulate both foreign and interstate commerce. Not intrastate commerce

8 Constitutions Allocation of power among the branches of government
Three branches of government: Executive Legislative Judicial System of checks and balances

9 Statutes The federal Constitution created the Congress of the U.S.
State constitutions created the state legislatures Both of composed of elected representatives of the people These legislatures enact laws called Statutes

10 Administrative Regulations
Federal, state, and local legislatures all create administrative agencies Governmental bodies formed to carry out particular laws Social Security Administration (federal) California Department of Transportation ( state) Zoning Commission ( local) Usually controlled by the executive branch of government that formed the agency

11 Administrative Regulations
Legislative power Authorized to create administrative laws Rules and regulations Limited judicial power Hearings Make determinations of fact Apply the law to particular cases

12 Cases Trial ends, result appealed to higher court
Appeal based on legal rulings made by the lower court When appellate court publishes opinion, it may state new rules to be used in deciding the case and others like it.

13 Cases Stare decisis “ to adhere to decided cases”
Lower courts must follow established case law in deciding similar cases Generally doesn’t bind supreme courts Seldom revoked

14 Conflicting Laws Constitutions and validity
The federal Constitution is the “supreme law of the land” Any federal, state, or local law is not valid if it conflicts with the federal Constitution Same within each state and state constitution “Unconstitutional”

15 Conflicting Laws Statues and validity
Must be constitutional to be valid Administrative regulations and validity Can be reviewed by courts to determine if unconstitutional

16 Conflicting Laws Case law and validity
Courts are not the final authority Statutes can be abolished or rewritten Administrative agencies can revise regulations if challenged People, through votes for representatives, have power to amend constitutions.

17 Criminal v. Civil Laws Civil Law
When the private legal rights of an individual are violated One person ahs a right to sue another person Police do not take action in civil conflicts

18 Criminal v. Civil Laws Criminal Law
Crime: an offense against society Disrupts the stable environment that we depend on to make civilization work Government acts in the name of all people to investigate an alleged crime Conviction Fine Imprisonment Execution ( in some states)

19 Criminal v. Civil Laws When a crime occurs, private rights of the victim are usually violated too Violation may be a crime or civil offense Civil law may apply Victim may sue the wrongdoer I.E. – O.J Simpson, Michael Brown, Trayvon Martin, Sandra Bland, Oscar Grant, Rodney King

20 Procedural v. Substantive Laws
Procedural Law Deals with methods of enforcing legal rights and duties How and when police can make arrests Trial methods Stare decisis Rules for determining the supremacy of conflicting laws

21 Procedural v. Substantive Laws
Two types of procedural law Criminal procedure Defines the process for enforcing the law when someone is charged with a crime Civil procedure Used when a civil law has been violated Concerned only with private offenses Police and public prosecutors generally don’t get involved

22 Procedural v. Substantive Laws
Defines rights and duties Concerned with all rules of conduct except those involved with enforcement Defines offenses Murder Theft Vehicular homicide Etc,

23 Business Law Covers rules that apply to business situations and transactions Mostly Civil Law Contracts Torts – private wrongs ( civil offenses) against people or organizations Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)

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