Presentation on theme: "Cuban Missile Crisis: Success for USA Nuclear weapons which threatened USA removed from Cuba. Gaining a trade partner – After USA would not trade with."— Presentation transcript:
Cuban Missile Crisis: Success for USA Nuclear weapons which threatened USA removed from Cuba. Gaining a trade partner – After USA would not trade with Cuba, USSR gained a trade partner, where it could get its entire supply of Sugar. Gained an ally which was just 200km from the USA. In 1961, Castro agrees for nuclear weapons to be placed on the island, making the USSR more threatening to the USA. Missiles were removed from Turkey – a secret agreement was made between USA and USSR on 27 th October 1961 that the bases in Turkey would be removed – they were old and obsolete anyway – Kennedy had planned to remove them in six months time. A promise that Cuba would never be attacked, made on 27 th October on national television. Cuban Missile Crisis: Success for USSR Mutual benefits Test Ban Treaty – August 1963, signed in Moscow. Banned testing of nuclear weapons in air and water. Ended the one-upmanship of the last 20 years. Hotline telephone between the Whitehouse and the Kremlin so that leaders could discuss issues immediately. Disarmament conference – Began March 1962 at Geneva. First agreements reached over the control of nuclear weapons in a spirit of greater cooperation.
Loss of Cuban trade & influence – USA had helped Cuba win independence from Spain in 1898, and from then on had huge influence over Cuba. USA businesses and Mafia practically ran the island after USA helped General Batista gain power in 1933. Batista popular with USA because he allowed businesses and the Mafia to use the island, and allowed Americans to use Cuban land to grow sugar, paying the workers slave wages, while the exports were sold for huge profits. In 1959, Cuban revolutionaries lead by Fidel Castro overthrew the government of Batista, and gave all land back to the Cubans, and made the Mafia leave the island. After this, the USA refused to trade with Cuba, and so lost its supplier of Sugar, and its influence over the island. Embarrassment of the Bay of Pigs – 17 th to 19 th April 1961. Supporters of Batista had fled from Cuba to USA in years following the revolution. When JFK became president, the CIA convinced him that the Cuban exiles could be used to overthrow Castro. 1400 exiles with American air support landed at Bay of Pigs. The attack was a complete disaster; the air support was mistimed; and the USA seriously underestimated the support for Castro in Cuba. They were defeated in days. Further failure was the effects; Castro publicly declaring himself a communist, Cuba becoming heavily influenced by USSR, defensive weapons being put on Cuba; because USA had made themselves look aggressive. Failed in their policy of containment – they did not manage to stop Castro turning the country communist. Failure for USA Cuban Missile Crisis:
Khrushchev looked weak – he had backed down to the USA, and China broke from Russia after this. However, someone had to back down, and realises that nothing was worth ending life on Earth for. Kennedy had decided that in order to stop USSR ships carrying nuclear weapons to Cuba, he would use a blockade around the island. He placed 180 US Navy Warships 500 miles around Cuba. If ships would not stop at this blockade, JFK planned to invade Cuba, and launch an air strike with non nuclear weapons. Khrushchev ordered ships to turn back, making himself look weak. Failure for USSR Cuban Missile Crisis: