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SCIENTIFIC SKILLS SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS MANIPULATIVE SKILLS Observing Classifying Measuring and using numbers Making inferences Predicting Communicating.

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Presentation on theme: "SCIENTIFIC SKILLS SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS MANIPULATIVE SKILLS Observing Classifying Measuring and using numbers Making inferences Predicting Communicating."— Presentation transcript:


2 SCIENTIFIC SKILLS SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS MANIPULATIVE SKILLS Observing Classifying Measuring and using numbers Making inferences Predicting Communicating Sketch specimen and science apparatus Maintaining science apparatus correctly and safely Handling specimen correctly and carefully Cleaning science apparatus correctly Using and handling science apparatus Using time and space relationship, Interpreting data, Define operationally, Controlling variables, Making hypothesis, Experimenting

3 WHAT ARE SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS?  How a scientist works, thinks and studies problems. (Friedl, 1995)

4 WHAT ARE SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS?  A way of investigation that involves specific skills which require the following steps:  Planning course of actions  Carrying out activities  Collecting data  Organising and interpreting data  Reaching a conclusion



7 Specimen given: Groundnut Activities: i.Individually, examine the specimen given. ii.Record its characteristics. iii. Put the specimen back into the box and mix the groundnut up. iv. Try to identify your specimen based on the characteristics recorded earlier.

8 You are observing when you are …

9 1.Using the five senses effectively.

10 2. Identifying relevant particulars of an objects and its environment.

11 3. Focusing on relevant particulars from massive information.

12 4. Identifying similarities and differences.

13 5. Identifying strange / unusual features.

14 6. Realizing changes in environment.

15 7. Identifying the correct sequence.

16 8. Using appropriate instrument(s) to enhance senses for the details. MICROSCOPESTETHOSCOPE

17 What is meant by observing ? Observing involves collecting information about objects or phenomenon by using the five senses : Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell

18 Why do we need to observe? To compile / gather as much information as possible about objects or phenomena.

19 1.Focus on the objects or phenomena to be studied. 2.Identify the characteristics. 3.Compare the objects or phenomena. 4.Identify changes and sequence of events. 5.Use appropriate apparatus for more detailed observations. How do we observe?


21 You are classifying when you are….


23 1.Detecting similarities. Same shape Same Colour

24 2. Grouping objects based on certain criterion...

25 3. Using other criterion in grouping objects...

26 4. Grouping objects in different ways...

27 What is meant by classifying? Classifying is a process of grouping objects according to certain characteristics for a purpose.

28 Many items or information. Items or information are not organised. When do we need to classify? When there are :

29 1.Identify the general characteristics of the items. 2.Sort out items of the same characteristic into their respective groups. 3.Identify other characteristics. 4.Repeat steps 1-3 until there is only one item in each group. How do we classify?


31 You are measuring and using numbers when you are….

32 1.Able to count and compare quantity of items in different groups.


34 2. Able to recognized the pattern from a table of numbers.

35 3. Using numbers to record phenomenon. 0 = STOP 1=1= SLOW 2 = FAST 3 = FASTEST


37 4. Using scales and explaining ratios.

38 5. Compare objects using numbers.

39 6. Using tools correctly.

40 7. Recording unit correctly.

41 8. Choosing and using standard unit.

42 9. Comparing time, distance, area and volume with relevant units.

43 10. Determining the accuracy in measurements. Which is more accurate?

44 What is meant by measuring and using numbers? Measuring and using numbers is a process of observing quantitatively using numbers and standard or standardised measuring tools as the reference unit.

45 To obtain more accurate observations. Why do we need to measure and use numbers?

46 1. Identify the measurement required. 2. Specify the instrument to be used. 3. Compare the measurement with the specific instrument. 4. Add up the total measurement. How do we measure and use numbers?


48 You are making inferences when you are ….

49 1.Using information from observations to make reasonable early conclusions.

50 2. Making various possible interpretations from single observation.

51 3. Able to identify the limitations of inferences.

52 4. Testing the accuracy of inferences through additional observations.

53 5. Using inferences as a tool to determine the appropriate additional observations.

54 1.To plan actions or to make a choice. 2. To analyse the cause and effect of decisions Why do we need to infer?

55 Observe the situations or circumstances. State the reason why the situation or circumstances happens. Give reasons to your statement(s). Check if the reasons given are based on opinions or observations from the situations. If based on opinions, state why. How do we infer?

56 What is meant by making inferences? Making inferences is a process of making early conclusions by relating previous experiences with immediate observations.


58 1.Using previous or present evidence to state incoming events. 3. Able to determine the outcomes from action. 4. Using pattern of date explictly to make projections. You are predicting when you are………. 2. Able to differentiate between predicting and guessing.

59 5. Confident with the accuracy of the prediction. You are predicting when you are…. 6. Able to verify a statement of related to future events based on evidence or past experiences.

60 7. Being cautious in making assumption about a certain pattern of data beyond the evidence at hand. You are predicting when you are…. 8. Extrapolating and inserting data as a tool to predict.

61 When accuracy is not essential in: i.Reducing the number of choice. ii.Planning iii.Considering choices Why do we need to predict?

62 i.Observe to gather data. ii.Identify the pattern of the data. iii.Based on the pattern or past experiences, make suitable predictions. How do we predict?

63 What is meant by predicting? Predicting is a process of forecasting events based on observations and previous experiences or certain pattern of reliable data.


65 1.Speaking, listening or writing to express ideas or meanings. You are communicating when you are…. 2. Recording information from investigations. 3. Drawing and making notes. 4. Using and explaining the meaning of symbols.

66 5. Using charts, graphs and tables to present information. You are communicating when you are…. 6. Posting questions clearly. 7. Using references. 8. Writing experiment report to enable others to repeat the experiment.

67 To spread ideas or information. Why do we need to communicate? To share ideas or information.

68 1.Record information obtained from various resources. 2.Translate the information into other forms such as charts, graphs and tables. 3.Spread the information through various means and ways. How do we communicate ?

69 What is meant by communicating? Communicating is a process of receiving, spreading and sharing of information and ideas.

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