Presentation on theme: "SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS"— Presentation transcript:
1 SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS SCIENTIFIC SKILLSSCIENCE PROCESS SKILLSMANIPULATIVE SKILLSObservingUsing and handling science apparatusClassifyingMaintaining science apparatus correctly and safelyMeasuring and using numbersMaking inferencesCleaning science apparatus correctlyPredictingCommunicatingHandling specimen correctly and carefullyUsing time and space relationship, Interpreting data, Define operationally, Controlling variables, Making hypothesis, ExperimentingSketch specimen and science apparatus
2 WHAT ARE SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS? How a scientist works, thinks andstudies problems.(Friedl, 1995)
3 WHAT ARE SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS? A way of investigation that involvesspecific skills which require thefollowing steps:Planning course of actionsCarrying out activitiesCollecting dataOrganising and interpreting dataReaching a conclusion
4 BASIC SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS OBSERVINGCLASSIFYINGMEASURING AND USING NUMBERSMAKING INFERENCESPREDICTINGCOMMUNICATINGFor you information, actually there are are 12 SPS in science curriculum.But at aor level, we will concentrate on only 6 of them.They are :………..The other 6 are :The relation between space and time.Interpreting data.Definition by operationControlling variablesHypnotizingExperimenting
6 OBSERVING Specimen given: Groundnut Activities: Individually, examine the specimen given.Record its characteristics.iii. Put the specimen back into the box and mix the groundnut up.iv. Try to identify your specimen based on the characteristics recorded earlier.
15 8. Using appropriate instrument(s) to enhance senses for the details. MICROSCOPESTETHOSCOPE
16 What is meant by observing ? Observing involves collecting information about objects or phenomenon by using the five senses :SightHearingTouchTasteSmellWhatever we have done earlier is about observing.It is one of the six SPS that we are going to cover,Are you ready to move on the second SPS
17 Why do we need to observe? To compile / gather as much information as possible about objects or phenomena.
18 How do we observe? Focus on the objects or phenomena to be studied. Identify the characteristics.Compare the objects or phenomena.Identify changes and sequence of events.Use appropriate apparatus for more detailed observations.
26 What is meant by classifying? Classifying is a process of grouping objects according to certain characteristics for a purpose.
27 When do we need to classify? When there are :Many items or information.Items or information are not organised.
28 How do we classify? Identify the general characteristics of the items. Sort out items of the same characteristic into their respective groups.Identify other characteristics.Repeat steps 1-3 until there is only one item in each group.
41 9. Comparing time, distance, area and volume with relevant units. 20 minutes50 minutes7 km19 m
42 I have been reading for 2 hours 10. Determining the accuracy in measurements.I have been reading for 2 hoursI have waited for 2 moonsWhich is more accurate?
43 What is meant by measuring and using numbers? Measuring and using numbers is a process of observing quantitatively using numbers and standard or standardised measuring tools as the reference unit.Standard tools – established tools such as rulers, measuring tapes, measuring cylinders (Tools which are used established or accepted universally)STANDARDISED TOOLS – tools which can be used for measuring an object quantitatively using unit which is not established/ accepted universally such as cup, “jengkal”, hasta..etc
44 Why do we need to measure and use numbers? To obtain more accurate observations.
45 How do we measure and use numbers? 1. Identify the measurement required.2. Specify the instrument to be used.3. Compare the measurement with the specific instrument.4. Add up the total measurement.
48 Using information from observations to make reasonable early conclusions.
49 2. Making various possible interpretations from single observation.
50 3. Able to identify the limitations of inferences.
51 4. Testing the accuracy of inferences through additional observations.
52 5. Using inferences as a tool to determine the appropriate additional observations.
53 Why do we need to infer? To plan actions or to make a choice. 2. To analyse the cause and effect of decisionsUsing the inferences , we can determine what action should be taken( throw away / keep )Based on the decision made , what are the effects ?( Unable to cook / stomach-ache )
54 How do we infer? Observe the situations or circumstances. State the reason why the situation or circumstances happens .Give reasons to your statement(s).Check if the reasons given are based on opinions or observations from the situations. If based on opinions, state why.
55 What is meant by making inferences? Making inferences is a process of making early conclusions by relating previous experiences with immediate observations.
57 You are predicting when you are………. Using previous or present evidence to state incoming events.2. Able to differentiate between predicting and guessing.3. Able to determine the outcomes from action.4. Using pattern of date explictly to make projections.
58 You are predicting when you are…. 5. Confident with the accuracy of the prediction.6. Able to verify a statement of related to future events based on evidence or past experiences.
59 You are predicting when you are…. 7. Being cautious in making assumption about a certain pattern of data beyond the evidence at hand.8. Extrapolating and inserting data as a tool to predict.
60 Why do we need to predict? When accuracy is not essential in:Reducing the number of choice.PlanningConsidering choicesExample : The prediction of which beans will germinate will help reduce the numbers of bean sown.
61 How do we predict? Observe to gather data. Identify the pattern of the data.Based on the pattern or past experiences, make suitable predictions.
62 What is meant by predicting? Predicting is a process of forecasting events based on observations and previous experiences or certain pattern of reliable data.
64 You are communicating when you are…. Speaking, listening or writing to express ideas or meanings.2. Recording information from investigations.3. Drawing and making notes.4. Using and explaining the meaning of symbols.
65 You are communicating when you are…. 5. Using charts, graphs and tables to present information.6. Posting questions clearly.7. Using references.8. Writing experiment report to enable others to repeat the experiment.
66 Why do we need to communicate? To spread ideas or information.To share ideas or information.
67 How do we communicate ?Record information obtained from various resources.Translate the information into other forms such as charts, graphs and tables.Spread the information through various means and ways.
68 What is meant by communicating? Communicating is a process of receiving, spreading and sharing of information and ideas.