# Methods of Science Notes Mrs. Pangburn AC Science.

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Methods of Science Notes Mrs. Pangburn AC Science

Watch the following video and take notes. You should be able to answer the following questions…  What are the steps of the scientific method and what happens in each step?  What are the different types of variables and how do they differ?  What is the difference between quantitative data and qualitative data?  How do you set up and label a graph?  What are the three parts in writing a conclusion?

1. Ask a Question  Collect information  Make observations ASK YOURSELF : What question will I try to answer?

2. Hypothesize  A hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation or testable prediction of events ASK YOURSELF : Is my prediction testable?

3. Experiment  Investigate to test the hypothesis  When designing an experiment there are certain elements that must be present to make the test reliable:  Control group – a group used for comparison  Experimental group – the group exposed to the factor being tested  Only one factor can change at a time.  Constants – factors that remain fixed or the same  Independent variable (IV) – the factor that is manipulated  Dependent variable (DV) – the responding factor  For example: In the experiment testing how different types of fertilizer affects the growth of plants.  IV – the different types of fertilizer  DV – the growth of plants  Constants – the plants tested will be of the same species and will receive the same amount of sunlight, water, and soil.  Conduct sufficient testing  Perform at least three trials ASK YOURSELF : What materials and equipment will I need?

Remember….  DRY MIX D – dependent variable is the R - response you are looking for & goes on the Y – y-axis of a graph M – manipulated variable is the I - independent variable and goes on the X – x-axis of a graph

4. Gathering Data  Quantitative – data collected as numbers or numerical data  Qualitative – descriptions of what are senses detect  Create a chart to collect data. ASK YOURSELF : How will I record my data?

5. Analyzing Data  When analyzing data, organize the information from your chart into a graph.  Use a line graph when possible.  Look for patterns ASK YOURSELF : How will I display my data?

Title should contain the independent and dependent variables The Y- AXIS The X- axis

6. Error Analysis  Identify factors that you think may have affected the results.  Provide suggestions for improvement of the investigation.  Calculate: Experimental Results – Standard Results X 100 = % Error Standard Results ASK YOURSELF : Are there any sources of error in my procedure?

7. Conclusion  Report your findings:  Indicate whether or not your hypothesis was supported in the form of a CLAIM  Use data as evidence to support your claims.  Make connections to concepts by rationalizing or explaining why the evidence supports the claim. ASK YOURSELF : Was my hypothesis supported? Why or Why not?

Task:  The Soapy Sailor Does the type of water (tap, purified, distilled, or ocean water) affect the amount lather (suds) produced?

Answer the following: 1. What is your hypothesis? 2. What is your independent variable? 3. What is your dependent variable? 4. What factors will remain constant?