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An Overview of Potential Hazards in Food Service Operations

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Presentation on theme: "An Overview of Potential Hazards in Food Service Operations"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Overview of Potential Hazards in Food Service Operations

2 Food Safety Hazard A biological, chemical, or physical agent or condition in food that could potentially cause an adverse human health effect. It is anything in food that can cause harm to the consumer in the form of foodborne illness.

3 Foodborne Illnesses Defined as diseases, either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. There are more than 250 known foodborne diseases. Majority are infectious and caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites.

4 Other foodborne diseases are poisonings caused by toxins and chemicals contaminating the food.
All foodborne microbes and toxins enter the body through the gastrointestinal tract and often cause nausea and vomiting, which are early symptoms of a foodborne illness.

5 Three Categories of Food Safety Hazards:
Biological Chemical Physical Bacteria Parasites and helminths Virus Fungi Prions Agricultural chemicals (pesticides) Natural plant toxins Animal toxins Food additives Medications Radioactive substances Alcohol Foreign objects in food such as: Hair Pebbles Glass shards Toothpicks Plastic Metal fragments Fabrics

6 Sources of Food Safety Hazards
Risks of hazard resulting in foodborne illnesses can arise from every step in the food process from production to consumption. Risk of one or more hazards are always present in each step or area. Hazards can contaminate food through the following factors: Material Men Method Machine Money and; Environment

7 Is the unintended presence of a harmful substance in food.
Contamination Is the unintended presence of a harmful substance in food.


9 Cross-contamination Is the transfer of harmful substances from one food to another through a non-food surface, such as cooking wares, equipment, and food workers.

10 Categories of Contamination:
Inherent in Raw Material Contamination through Time-Temperature Abuse Cross-contamination Poor Personal Hygiene

11 Inherent in Raw Material
Raw food materials may appear clean, but microorganisms, chemicals, even foreign objects may be found in the raw food as it is grown, harvested, caught or slaughtered. A study done on several raw food indicates that no uncooked food should be considered completely safe from bacterial pathogens (Snyder, 2004)

12 Contamination through Time-Temperature Abuse
A food is said to have been time-temperature abused if it has been allowed to stay long at temperatures favorable to the growth of microorganisms. This temperature is referred to as the Temperature Danger Zone.


14 Contamination due to time-temperature abuse includes:
Failure to hold or store food at the required cold or hot temperature. Failure to cook and/or reheat to temperature that will kill harmful microorganisms; and Long interval between food preparation and serving without appropriate temperature.

15 Cross-contamination Cross-contamination occurs when microorganisms are transferred from a contaminated food contact surface or food to a non-contaminated food contact surface or food.

16 Common cross-contamination instances:
Addition of a raw material to a cooked ingredient without being heated or cooked; Contamination from the dirty apparel of food handlers; and Contamination of food surfaces.

17 Poor Personal Hygiene Individuals with poor personal hygiene practices can contaminate food and food contact surfaces. The most common source of foodborne illnesses can be traced to food handlers.

18 Common personal hygiene violations than can result in foodborne illnesses include:
Failure to wash hands properly; Failure to follow proper hygiene habits; Working when sick, and; Lack of training in personal hygiene practices

19 Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF)
Some types of food have the ability to support the rapid, progressive growth of infections and toxin-producing microorganisms. These foods are called potentially hazardous.

20 Characteristics of Potentially hazardous Foods:
History of being involved in foodborne illness outbreaks. Natural potential for contamination High moisture that supports bacterial growth High protein and carbohydrate Not acidic enough to inhibit the growth of microorganisms

21 Classification of Potentially Hazardous Foods:
Animal products that are raw or heat-treated All cooked meat and poultry Cooked meat products with sauces and stocks, especially those with tomatoes Dairy products like milk, cream, cheese, ice cream, and yogurt. Cooked eggs and products made from eggs like mayonaise.

22 Cooked shellfish and other seafoods
Cooked rice and beans, and baked or broiled potatoes Desserts consisting of eggs and milk Gravies and stuffing for meat and poultry Food products made with high-risk foods and exposed to more handling such as meatloaf, hamburgers, salads (pasta, coleslaw, and chicken, egg, and tuna salads) Chinese and Mexican dishes, some baked goods and cream fillings, French toast, meringue, and eggnog Foods or plant origin that are heat-treated or consist of raw seed sprouts Cut melons, and garlic and oil mixtures that are not modified in a way to inhibit the growth of microorganisms

23 Symptoms of Foodborne Illnesses:
In most cases of foodborne illnesses, symptoms resemble intestinal flu and may last for a few hours or even several days.

24 Symptoms can range from mild to serious and include:
Abdominal cramps Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea, which is sometimes bloody Fever Dehydration, and Headache

25 Risk Factors of Foodborne Illnesses:
Some people are at a greater risk for bacterial infections because of their age or an unhealthy immune system.

26 Individuals who are susceptible to the effects of foodborne illnesses are:
Infants and young children Pregnant women Elderly persons over 65 years old

27 Persons with debilitating illnesses or chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes mellitus, and tuberculosis Persons whose immune systems are compromised as in cases of HIV/AIDS, those who had organ transplants and multiple surgeries, and those undergoing radiation and chemotherapy.

28 Malnourished individuals who are anemic, and have depleted body proteins.
Individuals with unhealthy lifestyles, such as poor eating habits, alcohol and drug abuse, and smoking and; People under certain medications such as prolonged use of antibiotics and antacids, thereby reducing the normal beneficial microflora of the gastrointestinal tract.

29 Treatment of Foodborne Illnesses:
Most cases of foodborne illnesses are mild and can be treated by increasing fluid intake, either orally or intravenously, to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. People who experience gastrointestinal or neurologic symptoms should seek medical attention.

30 In the most severe situations, hospitalization may be needed to receive supportive nutritional and medical therapy. Maintaining adequate fluid and electrolyte balance and controlling blood pressure are important.

31 Socio-Economic Effects of Foodborne Illnesses:
Costs that may be incurred by the sick individual or caregiver/family. Loss of income Loss of opportunities for advancement Medical expenses to cover physical rehabilitation and long-term care Cost of child and geriatric care Cost of special dietary needs Loss of productivity Loss leisure and travel opportunities Funeral expenses

32 Business and Industry Costs
Legal liability cost Insurance cost Cost of recall or discarded product Poor publicity and decline of stock value Loss of reputation Cost of investigation, cleaning up, and education Loss of customers and business Costs to the nation and government Expenses for plant or on-site inspection Legislation Medical cost Prosecution cost Healthcare/ welfare benefits Losses from tourism and food export trade

33 Points to remember regarding potential hazards in food service operations:
Foodborne illnesses are acquired from eating food or drinking beverages contaminated with bacteria, viruses, or parasites. People at greater risk for foodborne illnesses include young children, pregnant women, and their unborn child, elderly and people with lowered immunity. Symptoms usually resemble intestinal flu. A doctor should immediately be consulted if more serious problems occur or there is no improvement in the condition.

34 Treatment may range from the replacement of lost fluids and electrolytes for mild cases of foodborne illnesses to hospitalization for severe conditions such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Foodborne hazards can be classified as biological, chemical or physical. Biological hazards can be caused by parasites, viruses, or bacteria. Chemical contaminants in foods can come from industrial or agricultural sources, food processing, or the food itself.

35 Toxic chemicals also come from biological sources such as molds and algae.
Foreign objects present in food could constitute a physical hazard to the consumer. The socio-economic effects of foodborne illnesses would include cost to the victim, the food industry, and the government.

36 Acknowledgment:

37 Textbook: Food Safety and Sanitation By: Mary Jean C. Ang And
Hannah A. Balanon C & E Publishing, inc., 2010 edition

38 End of Presentation

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