Presentation on theme: "An Overview of Potential Hazards in Food Service Operations"— Presentation transcript:
1 An Overview of Potential Hazards in Food Service Operations
2 Food Safety HazardA biological, chemical, or physical agent or condition in food that could potentially cause an adverse human health effect.It is anything in food that can cause harm to the consumer in the form of foodborne illness.
3 Foodborne IllnessesDefined as diseases, either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food.There are more than 250 known foodborne diseases. Majority are infectious and caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites.
4 Other foodborne diseases are poisonings caused by toxins and chemicals contaminating the food. All foodborne microbes and toxins enter the body through the gastrointestinal tract and often cause nausea and vomiting, which are early symptoms of a foodborne illness.
5 Three Categories of Food Safety Hazards: BiologicalChemicalPhysicalBacteriaParasites and helminthsVirusFungiPrionsAgricultural chemicals (pesticides)Natural plant toxinsAnimal toxinsFood additivesMedicationsRadioactive substancesAlcoholForeign objects in food such as:HairPebblesGlass shardsToothpicksPlasticMetal fragmentsFabrics
6 Sources of Food Safety Hazards Risks of hazard resulting in foodborne illnesses can arise from every step in the food process from production to consumption.Risk of one or more hazards are always present in each step or area.Hazards can contaminate food through the following factors:MaterialMenMethodMachineMoney and;Environment
7 Is the unintended presence of a harmful substance in food. ContaminationIs the unintended presence of a harmful substance in food.
9 Cross-contaminationIs the transfer of harmful substances from one food to another through a non-food surface, such as cooking wares, equipment, and food workers.
10 Categories of Contamination: Inherent in Raw MaterialContamination through Time-Temperature AbuseCross-contaminationPoor Personal Hygiene
11 Inherent in Raw Material Raw food materials may appear clean, but microorganisms, chemicals, even foreign objects may be found in the raw food as it is grown, harvested, caught or slaughtered.A study done on several raw food indicates that no uncooked food should be considered completely safe from bacterial pathogens (Snyder, 2004)
12 Contamination through Time-Temperature Abuse A food is said to have been time-temperature abused if it has been allowed to stay long at temperatures favorable to the growth of microorganisms.This temperature is referred to as the Temperature Danger Zone.
14 Contamination due to time-temperature abuse includes: Failure to hold or store food at the required cold or hot temperature.Failure to cook and/or reheat to temperature that will kill harmful microorganisms; andLong interval between food preparation and serving without appropriate temperature.
15 Cross-contaminationCross-contamination occurs when microorganisms are transferred from a contaminated food contact surface or food to a non-contaminated food contact surface or food.
16 Common cross-contamination instances: Addition of a raw material to a cooked ingredient without being heated or cooked;Contamination from the dirty apparel of food handlers; andContamination of food surfaces.
17 Poor Personal HygieneIndividuals with poor personal hygiene practices can contaminate food and food contact surfaces.The most common source of foodborne illnesses can be traced to food handlers.
18 Common personal hygiene violations than can result in foodborne illnesses include: Failure to wash hands properly;Failure to follow proper hygiene habits;Working when sick, and;Lack of training in personal hygiene practices
19 Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF) Some types of food have the ability to support the rapid, progressive growth of infections and toxin-producing microorganisms.These foods are called potentially hazardous.
20 Characteristics of Potentially hazardous Foods: History of being involved in foodborne illness outbreaks.Natural potential for contaminationHigh moisture that supports bacterial growthHigh protein and carbohydrateNot acidic enough to inhibit the growth of microorganisms
21 Classification of Potentially Hazardous Foods: Animal products that are raw or heat-treatedAll cooked meat and poultryCooked meat products with sauces and stocks, especially those with tomatoesDairy products like milk, cream, cheese, ice cream, and yogurt.Cooked eggs and products made from eggs like mayonaise.
22 Cooked shellfish and other seafoods Cooked rice and beans, and baked or broiled potatoesDesserts consisting of eggs and milkGravies and stuffing for meat and poultryFood products made with high-risk foods and exposed to more handling such as meatloaf, hamburgers, salads (pasta, coleslaw, and chicken, egg, and tuna salads)Chinese and Mexican dishes, some baked goods and cream fillings, French toast, meringue, and eggnogFoods or plant origin that are heat-treated or consist of raw seed sproutsCut melons, and garlic and oil mixtures that are not modified in a way to inhibit the growth of microorganisms
23 Symptoms of Foodborne Illnesses: In most cases of foodborne illnesses, symptoms resemble intestinal flu and may last for a few hours or even several days.
24 Symptoms can range from mild to serious and include: Abdominal crampsNauseaVomitingDiarrhea, which is sometimes bloodyFeverDehydration, andHeadache
25 Risk Factors of Foodborne Illnesses: Some people are at a greater risk for bacterial infections because of their age or an unhealthy immune system.
26 Individuals who are susceptible to the effects of foodborne illnesses are: Infants and young childrenPregnant womenElderly persons over 65 years old
27 Persons with debilitating illnesses or chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes mellitus, and tuberculosisPersons whose immune systems are compromised as in cases of HIV/AIDS, those who had organ transplants and multiple surgeries, and those undergoing radiation and chemotherapy.
28 Malnourished individuals who are anemic, and have depleted body proteins. Individuals with unhealthy lifestyles, such as poor eating habits, alcohol and drug abuse, and smoking and;People under certain medications such as prolonged use of antibiotics and antacids, thereby reducing the normal beneficial microflora of the gastrointestinal tract.
29 Treatment of Foodborne Illnesses: Most cases of foodborne illnesses are mild and can be treated by increasing fluid intake, either orally or intravenously, to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.People who experience gastrointestinal or neurologic symptoms should seek medical attention.
30 In the most severe situations, hospitalization may be needed to receive supportive nutritional and medical therapy.Maintaining adequate fluid and electrolyte balance and controlling blood pressure are important.
31 Socio-Economic Effects of Foodborne Illnesses: Costs that may be incurred by the sick individual or caregiver/family.Loss of incomeLoss of opportunities for advancementMedical expenses to cover physical rehabilitation and long-term careCost of child and geriatric careCost of special dietary needsLoss of productivityLoss leisure and travel opportunitiesFuneral expenses
32 Business and Industry Costs Legal liability costInsurance costCost of recall or discarded productPoor publicity and decline of stock valueLoss of reputationCost of investigation, cleaning up, and educationLoss of customers and businessCosts to the nation and governmentExpenses for plant or on-site inspectionLegislationMedical costProsecution costHealthcare/ welfare benefitsLosses from tourism and food export trade
33 Points to remember regarding potential hazards in food service operations: Foodborne illnesses are acquired from eating food or drinking beverages contaminated with bacteria, viruses, or parasites.People at greater risk for foodborne illnesses include young children, pregnant women, and their unborn child, elderly and people with lowered immunity.Symptoms usually resemble intestinal flu. A doctor should immediately be consulted if more serious problems occur or there is no improvement in the condition.
34 Treatment may range from the replacement of lost fluids and electrolytes for mild cases of foodborne illnesses to hospitalization for severe conditions such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome.Foodborne hazards can be classified as biological, chemical or physical.Biological hazards can be caused by parasites, viruses, or bacteria.Chemical contaminants in foods can come from industrial or agricultural sources, food processing, or the food itself.
35 Toxic chemicals also come from biological sources such as molds and algae. Foreign objects present in food could constitute a physical hazard to the consumer.The socio-economic effects of foodborne illnesses would include cost to the victim, the food industry, and the government.