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1 Section 1:Building Blocks of Social Structure Section 2:Types of Social Interaction Section 3:Types of Societies Section 4:Groups Within Society Section.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Section 1:Building Blocks of Social Structure Section 2:Types of Social Interaction Section 3:Types of Societies Section 4:Groups Within Society Section."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Section 1:Building Blocks of Social Structure Section 2:Types of Social Interaction Section 3:Types of Societies Section 4:Groups Within Society Section 5:The Structure of Formal Organizations CHAPTER 4 Social Structure

2 2 Objectives:  Identify and describe the two major components of social structure.  Analyze how these two components of social structure affect human interaction. Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

3 3 What is Social Structure?  Social structure is the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interactions within societies. Social structure within a family

4 4 Major Components of Social Structure  Status – a socially defined position in a group or in a society and has attached to it one or more roles  Ascribed status — Status assigned according to standards that are beyond a person's control, such as age, sex, family heritage, or race.  Not based on one’s abilities, efforts, or accomplishments, but on inherited traits or certain age groups

5 5 Major Components of Social Structure  Achieved Status – Status acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, or ability.  Includes all occupations, husband/wife, parent, high school graduate, athlete.  Gained through one’s personal efforts  Include special knowledge, skills, and/or abilities  People have control over their achieved statuses, but not their ascribed statuses

6 6 Major Components of Social Structure  Master status – is the status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person's life and determining his or her social identity.  Either achieved or ascribed  Examples include occupation, wealth, marital status, parenthood  During much of adulthood master status may be defined by one’s occupation  Changes over the course of a person’s life  Teenager – student; athlete  Adulthood – occupation; marriage  Retirement – grandparenthood; hobbies; past achievements

7 7 Examples of Master Status Adolescence/Young Adulthood: Student Adulthood: Job Retirement: Leisure Time

8 8 Major Components of Social Structure  Role – the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status  You occupy a status, but you play a role  Reciprocal roles —corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses  Must have someone performing the role of the other spouse in order for a person to be a spouse  Ex: doctor-patient; athlete-coach; friend-friend  People’s particular roles and statuses affect how they relate to one another.

9 9 Examples of Reciprocal Roles Doctor-Patient Employee- Employer Sales Clerk- Customer Friend-Friend

10 10 Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  Role expectations —socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role  Ex: doctors are expected to treat patients with care  Role performance —the actual behavior of a person performing a role  Do not always correspond with the given role’s expectations  Can be seen as inappropriate within in society if role expectations are not met  The difference in role expectation and then performance can be attributed to the fact that some people are asked to fulfill contradicting roles at the same time

11 11 Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  Role set —the different roles attached to a single status  Many interrelated roles to perform within in a single status  Role conflict —a situation that occurs when fulfilling and expectations of one role makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another role  Actually happens because of conflict between statuses

12 12 Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  Role strain —a situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single role “I’ll be late for dinner, Dear. I’m up to my neck in paperwork.” An employee being forced to work overtime by their boss

13 13 Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  Social Institutions —a system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society  Primary social institutions studied by sociologists include:  Family  Economy  Politics  Education  Religion

14 14 SECTION 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure Status Examples of Roles Examples of Conflict / Strain fire fighter mother P.T.A. president putting out fires, saving lives, wearing a uniform voluntarily puts self in danger but has loved ones who need him or her work fatigue and long shifts make household tasks and interactions difficult providing food and shelter, nurturing family, disciplining children running meetings, recruiting new members, planning activities has trouble getting members to attend and follow through on promises

15 15 Objectives:  Identify the most common types of social interaction.  Distinguish between types of interactions that stabilize social structure and those that can disrupt it. Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

16 16 Common Types of Social Interaction  Exchange – interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actions  Competition – two or more people or groups in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attain  Conflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone else, or to harm another person

17 17 Common Types of Social Interaction  Cooperation – two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of them  Accommodation – a state of balance between cooperation and conflict Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

18 18 Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt  Competition and Conflict – disrupt social stability  Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation stabilize social stability

19 19 Objectives:  Identify and describe the types of societies that exist in the world today.  Explain the roles individuals play in these models of group systems. Section 3: Types of Societies

20 20 Types of Societies  Preindustrial – food production is the main economic activity and can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing food  Industrial – emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods made possible by changes in production methods  Postindustrial – much of the economy is involved in providing information and services

21 21 Roles of Individuals  Roles related to:  Leadership  Family  Work

22 22 Objectives:  Summarize the major features of primary and secondary groups.  Identify the purposes that groups fulfill. Section 4: Groups Within Society

23 23 Features of Primary Groups  Interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis  Entire self of the individual is taken into account  Relationships are intimate and face-to- face

24 24 Features of Secondary Groups  Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature  Involve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s self  Casual and limited to personal involvement

25 25 Purposes of Groups  Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes and opinions of others  Define their boundaries – so that members can tell who belongs and who does not  Set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions  Control their members’ behavior – if members violate groups norms, the group cannot survive long

26 26 Objectives:  Explain how bureaucracies are structured.  Evaluate the effectiveness of bureaucracies. Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

27 27 Weber’s Model  Division of Labor  Ranking of Authority  Employment based on formal qualifications  Rules and regulations  Specific lines of promotion and advancement

28 28 Effectiveness of Bureaucracies  Efficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewards  Provides stability  Can lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchies  In some instances, rewards incompetence and expands uncontrollably

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31 31 SECTION 1 Question: What are the two major components of social structure, and how do they affect human interaction? Building Blocks of Social Structure

32 32 SECTION 2 Question: What are some common types of social interaction, and what are examples of each? Types of Social Interaction

33 33 SECTION 2 Types of Social Interaction Types of Social Interactions Exchange Competition Cooperation Accommodation Conflict

34 34 SECTION 3 Types of Societies Question: What are the three main types of societies and characteristics or examples of each?

35 35 SECTION 3 Types of Societies Preindustrial Industrial Postindustrial Types of Societies hunting and gathering; pastoral; horticultural; mechanical solidarity manufacturing agricultural urban; technology; organic solidarity information; provision of services

36 36 SECTION 4 Groups Within Society Question: What are the purposes and functions of groups?

37 37 SECTION 4 Groups Within Society define boundaries set goalsmake decisionscontrol members’ behavior assign tasksselect leaders GROUP FUNCTIONS

38 38 SECTION 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations Head of the Bureaucracy (CEO, Superintendent, president, etc.) Department Head/VP (subordinates) Department Head/VP

39 39 Chapter Wrap-Up 1.How can a person’s status differ from his or her role? 2.How does role conflict affect groups and individuals? How can it be resolved? 3.What are the five most common forms of interaction recognized by sociologists? 4.Identify and describe the three broad categories of societies used by sociologists. 5.How do the roles of group members differ between primary and secondary groups? 6.What, according to Max Weber’s model, are the major characteristics of a bureaucracy? 7.What weaknesses influence the effectiveness of bureaucracies ? 1.How can a person’s status differ from his or her role? 2.How does role conflict affect groups and individuals? How can it be resolved? 3.What are the five most common forms of interaction recognized by sociologists? 4.Identify and describe the three broad categories of societies used by sociologists. 5.How do the roles of group members differ between primary and secondary groups? 6.What, according to Max Weber’s model, are the major characteristics of a bureaucracy? 7.What weaknesses influence the effectiveness of bureaucracies ? CHAPTER 4


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