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Introduction to Rhetoric and Rhetorical Analysis

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1 Introduction to Rhetoric and Rhetorical Analysis

2 Rhetoric? What is Rhetoric? Where do you hear this term being used?

3 Defining Rhetoric Plato:  Rhetoric is "the art of winning the soul by discourse." Aristotle: Rhetoric is "the faculty of discovering in any particular case all of the available means of persuasion.” Quintillian:  "Rhetoric is the art of speaking well.” Kenneth Burke:  "Wherever there is persuasion, there is rhetoric, and wherever there is rhetoric, there is meaning.” Andrea Lunsford:  "Rhetoric is the art, practice, and study of human communication."

4 History Greek city states - first recorded democracies
Importance of rhetoric and persuasion for citizens Aristotle: BCE Wrote “On Rhetoric” Founded a school Taught Alexander the Great Many other great rhetoricians followed – Isocrates, Cicero, Quintillian

5 Aristotle’s Rhetoric From On Rhetoric:
Three ways of persuading: Ethos Pathos Logos Aristotle’s proofs have withstood over 2000 years to remain both an effective and useful tool in examining effective communication. Most of the time, multiple proofs are used within the same context to help communicate and/or persuade.

6 Rhetorical Analysis Good Reasons describes rhetorical analysis as: “An effort to understand how people in specific social situations influence each other through language and culture (visual art, architecture, photos, actions, events, etc).” (Ch 4). Good Reasons gives two goals for rhetorical analysis strives to understand: “How particular rhetorical acts are persuasive The values and attitudes that are conveyed through rhetorical means” (Ch 4) To this I add two more: A critical awareness of influences and how you are influenced Rhetorical techniques to use in future classes and writing

7 The Rhetorical Triangle
Who is reading (attitudes, motivations, education, beliefs, ideology) The Audience: Where the piece was written or is being read (culture, city, institution, time period) The Context The Message The Purpose Why the piece was written (to persuade, to Inform, to entertain) and the message it contains

8 Aspects of Rhetorical Analysis
Examining the Contextual Features: Who is the author? Who is the intended audience? Where published/presented? What else was happening in the world at the time Kairos- “right time, right place” Examining the textual features: Ethos, pathos, and logos used (persuasive proofs) Arrangement / organization of arguments Style, tone, word choice Delivery of piece – visuals, etc.

9 Advertising and Rhetorical Analysis
Advertising is a great way to understand rhetorical analysis, especially contextual features. Let’s look at a few ads….

10 Advertising and Rhetorical Analysis - Context
In groups, examine Ads in different decades using the “Adflip” website. Create a list of features of the ads in the 1940’s, 1970’s and current. Use these questions to help guide you: What are the differences in audience? Are there differences in the purpose of the ads? What differences exist in the amount of text and how it is organized?

11 In Groups – Article Analysis
Re-examine the article that you summarized last week on “How Facts Backfire” located: how_facts_backfire/ Consider the following: What is the context of the article? Why was this published now? Who is the intended audience? What is the purpose of the article (i.e. why was it written?) Is this article timely and relevant? Why or why not?

12 Article Analysis – Part II
Now begin to focus on the text itself: What are the main arguments? Summarize and support with quotes from the text. There is more than one. What kinds of evidence are used? (provide specific examples) How is the article organized? Is that organization effective?

13 Groupwork #3 Share your own rhetorical analysis homework assignment in pairs. As a group, choose one of the two assignments to share with the class.

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