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The Harlem Renaissance

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Presentation on theme: "The Harlem Renaissance"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Harlem Renaissance
Chapter 21: Section 4 The Harlem Renaissance

2 What was the Harlem Renaissance?
Flowering of a unique African American identity and culture Redefined African American expression Artistic and literary movement of African-American culture during the 1920s and 1930s Produced famous writers such as Langston Hughes Famous musicians such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington.

3 What led to the Harlem Renaissance?
The Great Migration Locke: "something like a spiritual emancipation" Rise of radical black intellectuals Locke, Marcus Garvey, W.E.B. DuBois New African American goals

4 The Great Migration Between 1910 and 1920, hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved north  Went to big cities looking for jobs By the end of decade, 40% of African Americans lived in urban cities

5 Tension in the North Northern cities didn't welcome this massive influx of African Americans Tensions escalated Summer of 1919: About 25 urban race riots Led to an increased desire to improve African Americans' situation

6 African-American Goals: NAACP
Founded in 1909 Urged African Americans to protest racial violence W.E.B. DuBois: Founding member of NAACP  Led parade to protest such violence Led struggle for civil rights James Weldon Johnson: leader of NAACP fought for legislation to protect African American rights Antilynching laws made priority New, more militant voice of African Americans

7 African American Goals: Marcus Garvey and the UNIA
Believed African Americans should build separate society Different, more radical message of black pride UNIA founded in 1914 Appealed to followers with messages of pride, mass meetings, parades, etc. Practical plans to promote African American businesses Encouraged followers to return to Africa Support declined in mid-1920's Left behind legacy of newly awakened black pride, independence, and celebration of heritage

8 Harlem, New York Many who migrated north moved to Harlem
World's largest African American urban community Overcrowding, unemployment, and poverty persisted  Problems in the 1920s were eclipsed by a flowering of creativity... the Harlem Renaissance Became a center of culture and creativity

9 African American Writers
Above all, the Harlem Renaissance was a literary movement Led by well-educated, middle class African Americans Expressed new pride in African American experience Celebrated heritage and wrote about life's trials

10 African American Writers:
   Langston Hughes An African American poet His poetry moved to the tempo of jazz Poems described the difficult lives of working-class African Americans He embraced his African American culture and background while living in a white dominated society

11 Langston Hughes Poem: "I, Too"
I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then. Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed-- I, too, am America.

12 African American Writers: Claude McKay
Novelist and poet with militant voice Urged African Americans to resist prejudice and discrimination Wrote about the pain of life as a black man in a "white world"

13 African American Writers: Zora Neale Hurston
Novelist and poet portrayed lives of poor, unschooled southern blacks  "the greatest cultural wealth of the continent" Celebrated the common-people's art: the folkways and values of those who survived slavery

14 African American Performers
The Harlem Renaissance was more than writers and intellectuals Performers gained large followings Roland Hayes: concert singer Ethel Waters: singer and actress on Broadway Raul Robeson: major dramatic actor

15 African Americans and Jazz
Jazz was born in the early 20th century in New Orleans, where musicians blended instrumental ragtime and vocal bluse into an exuberant new sound. It quickly spread to cities such as Kansas City, Memphis, and New York CIty, and it became a popular music for dancing.  During the 1920s, Harlem pulsed the sounds of jazz, luring admirers of the music to places such as the Apollo Theater and Cotton Club. Famous artist included Louis Armstrong,         Bessie Smith, Duke Ellington, and many more. 

16 Duke Ellington Bessie Smith Louis Armstrong

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