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The Weberians Present: Ch. 6: Social Groups and Organizations Tania Jarquin, Edith Mora, Linda Padilla, Daniel Rodriguez, Rosa Villa/ SYG 2000 Honors 2/7/2011.

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Presentation on theme: "The Weberians Present: Ch. 6: Social Groups and Organizations Tania Jarquin, Edith Mora, Linda Padilla, Daniel Rodriguez, Rosa Villa/ SYG 2000 Honors 2/7/2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Weberians Present: Ch. 6: Social Groups and Organizations Tania Jarquin, Edith Mora, Linda Padilla, Daniel Rodriguez, Rosa Villa/ SYG 2000 Honors 2/7/2011

2 The Nature of Groups Introduction – Social groups: consists of a number of people who have a common identity, some feeling of unity, and certain common goals and shared norms. – Characteristics of social groups: Members develop expectations of proper behavior A shared sense of identity A group's values and norms are more particular than the larger society's. Ie: a college class with common norms: challenging each other or discussing taboo subjects. – Social Aggregate: the opposite of social groups. This is when people are in physical proximity to each other but do not necessarily have anything in common, ie: people on a train

3 The Nature of Groups Members of groups are often times selective and distinct when admitting foreigners to the group. – Consequence of exclusivity: requires traditional statuses and role behavior. Ie: A tenant’s group Groups cannot develop unless they share certain characteristics and are aware of those characteristics, ie: Left-Handers International Even if they are aware of each other, people do not form social groups because of classifications alone Social groups are a necessity to participate in society

4 The Nature of Groups In a nutshell, social groups are: – a. permanent beyond the absence of members – b. identifiable – c. open to new members – d. purpose-driven – e. set in their norms – f. able to maintain their norms Primary and Secondary Groups – Primary Groups associate intimately based on total personalities. Example: a family Not based on specific traits but the totality of them – Secondary Groups have specific goals, are organized, and are impersonal. Example: corporations

5 Functions of Groups Defining Boundaries – Telling group members apart: symbols, gesture and language. – Ie: School Uniforms Choosing Leaders – Definition I. Instrumental Leadership II. Expressive Leadership Making Decisions I. Hunter-Gatherers (Collectivism) II. Voting Systems: Democratic Republic or Dictatorship

6 Functions of Groups Setting Goals – Goals are not set in stone nor are they easily defined. Assigning Tasks – I. Groups must maintain contact within its membership – II. All groups members must be aware of each other and the group itself. Controlling Member’s Behavior – I. Conformity – II. Primary groups – III. Secondary Groups

7 Reference Groups Positive and negative reference groups are important for an individual’s perception Ex. A fraternity brother vs. a punk A kind of group used by an individual to help define beliefs, attitudes, and values and to guide behavior. Ex. a film major identifies with famous filmmakers or actors. An individual might alter their behavior in anticipation of joining the reference group they emulate Ex.

8 Reference Groups Small Groups Small groups actually meet together and contain few enough members. -a dyad contains only two members -a triad creates uncertainty with a third member -example: George Orwell's 1984 subgroups are splinter groups within the group Large Groups: Associations associations are purposefully created special-interest groups that have clearly defined goals and official ways of doing things ex: government agencies Formal structure is maintained by giving apportioned tasks to specific individuals Informal structures serve the human necessity for rule bending and procedural shortcuts through networks within the association

9 Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft The Chicago sociologists adopted terms used by Ferdinand Tonnies, a German sociologist, to describe the transition from rural to urban society Gemeinschaft (community) operates on an intimate, cooperative, and personal basis. Gesellschaft (society) operates on an impersonal and independent basis. Tonnies saw Gesellschaft as a 19 th century concept that grew out of industrialization

10 Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Collective conscience is a system of fundamental beliefs and values which every society has Social solidarity emerges from the people's commitment and conformity to the society's collective conscience. A mechanically integrated society has a strong collective conscience and has great commitment from its members An organically integrated society depends on the cooperation of individuals in many positions who perform specialized tasks

11 Bureaucracy Today: The Reality Robert K. Merton defined bureaucracy as a formally organized social structure with defined patterns of activity. Weber's Model of Bureaucracy: An Ideal Type – According to Weber: I.Bureaucracies are the most efficient form of social organization according to Weber's ideal type II. Weber outlined Six Characteristics: 1.A clear-cut division of labor 2.Hierarchical delegation of power and responsibility 3.Rules and regulations 4.Impartiality 5.Employment based on technical qualifications 6.Distinction between public and private spheres

12 Bureaucracy Today: The Reality Bureacracy Today: The Reality – No bureaucracies can follow Weber's model – Most people resent the hierarchy and rules of bureaucracies The Iron Law of Oligarchy – Robert Michels: Weber’s colleague Theorized that bureaucracies would lead to oligarchy, which is the ruling of organizations by a small self-serving group which Bureaucracies can't exist in democracies The iron law of oligarchy outlines how to prevent this

13 Social Institutions Definition: the ordered social relationships that grow out of the values, norms, statuses, and roles that organize the activities that fulfill society's fundamental needs. o The Family Sector o The Education Sector o The Economic Sector o The Religious Sector o The Political Sector

14 Social Organizations Social Organizations- consist of relatively stable relationship patterns of social relationships among individuals and groups in society - Relationships based on systems of social roles, social norms, shared meanings. - Provides regularity in social interaction ex. Marriage in Islam and the Judeo-Christian culture

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