Exposure Types of Exposure –Selective Exposure –Voluntary Exposure
Attention Determined by three factors: –Stimulus Factors –Individual Factors –Situational Factors
8-5 Attention Size Intensity Attractive Visuals Color and Movement Position Isolation Format Contrast and Expectations Interestingness Information Quantity Stimulus Factors
Attention Color and Movement Color and movement attract attention. A brightly colored package or display is more likely to received attention. Color and movement are also important in ads. Stimulus Factors: A Closer Look Color and Size Impact on Attention 1 Source: 1 ”How Important is Color to an Ad?” Starch Tested Copy. February 1989, p.1. Roper Starch Worldwide, Inc.
Attention Location Location is the placement of an object in physical space or time. Stimulus Factors: A Closer Look
8-8 Attention Contrast and Expectations Consumers pay more attention to stimuli that contrast with their background. Adaptation level theory Stimulus Factors: A Closer Look This billboard ad provides contrast for enhanced attention.
Attention – Situational Factors Clutter Program Involvement
Attention Program involvement has a positive influence on attention (see graph). Situational Factors: A Closer Look Situational Factors: A Closer Look Source: 1 ”Cahners Advertising Research Report 120.1 and 120.12 (Boston: Cahners Publishing, undated).
Attention – Hemispheric Lateralization Hemispheric Lateralization Hemispheric Lateralization refers to activities that take place on each side of the brain. Non-focused Attention The left side of the brain controls activities related to rational thought. The right side of the brain deals with images and impressions.
8-17 Attention – Subliminal Stimuli Subliminal Stimuli subliminal stimulus A message presented so fast, softly or masked by other messages that one is not aware of seeing or hearing it is call a subliminal stimulus. Nonfocused Attention
Interpretation Three aspects of interpretation Three aspects of interpretation: 1. a relative process rather than absolute perceptual relativity perceptual relativity 2.subjective and open to psychological biases. 3. cognitive “thinking” process or an affective “emotional” process.
Action Contre la Faim Courtesy EURO RSCG Worldwide
8-20 Interpretation Interpretation is determined by three Characteristics Interpretation is determined by three Characteristics : 1.Individual Characteristics 2.Situational Characteristics 3.Stimulus Characteristics
8-21 Interpretation Individual Characteristics Traits Physiological and psychological traits drive our needs and desires. These traits influence how a stimulus is interpreted. Physiologically Consumers differ in their sensitivity to stimuli, e.g., taste.Psychologically Consumers have natural cognitive, emotional, and behavioral predispositions, e.g., affect intensity.
Interpretation – Learning and Knowledge Learning and Knowledge The meanings attached to such “natural” things as time, space, relationships, and colors are learned and vary widely across cultures. Individual Characteristics Color is used in the Wrigley’s ad to mean “icy and cool.”
Interpretation - Expectations Expectations Interpretations tend to be consistent with expectations, an effect referred to as the expectation bias. Individual Characteristics Brands create expectations and can thus bias perceptions.
Applications in Consumer Behavior – Stimulus Characteristics Traits Courtesy Srixon Sports: Agency: Fitzgerald & Co. Rhetorical figures Rhetorical figures involve the use of incongruity or artful deviation in language use.
8-26 Interpretation – Consumer Inferences Quality Signals Interpreting Images Missing Information and Ethical Concerns
Perception and Marketing Strategy Retail Strategy Brand Name and Logo Development Linguistic Consideration Branding Strategies Logo Design and Typographics Media Strategy Advertisements Package Design and Labeling