11 Logos Appeal to logic or reason the argument itself; the reasoning the author uses; logical evidence“Oh, that makes sense” or “Hmm, that really doesn’t prove anything.”EX: facts, statistics, citations, quotes, examples, definitions
12 Questions to ask for Logos: Is the thesis clear and specific?Is the thesis supported by strong reasons and credible evidence?Is the argument logical and arranged in a well- reasoned order?
14 Ethos Appeal to character or ethics How the author builds credibility and trustworthinessReader or audience respects the author or his viewsEX: author’s profession/background/publication, appearing sincere or fair, conceding to opposition where appropriate, morally likable, appropriate vocabulary and language for audience and subject, correct grammar
15 EthosWhat are the writer’s qualifications? How has the writer connected him/herself to the topic being discussed?Does the writer demonstrate respect for multiple viewpoints by using sources in the text?Are sources credible? Are sources documented appropriately?Does the writer use a tone that is suitable for the audience/purpose? Is the diction (word choice) used appropriate for the audience/purpose?Is the document presented in a polished and professional manner?
17 Pathos Appeal to emotion Words or passages and author uses activate emotionPersuasion by emotion – evoking fear, sympathy, empathy, and/or angerEX: emotionally loaded language, vivid descriptions, emotional examples, testimonies or anecdotes, figurative language, emotional tone
18 PathosAre vivid examples, details and images used to engage the reader’s emotions and imagination?Does the writer appeal to the values and beliefs of the reader by using examples readers can relate to or care about?