10-2 Learning Objectives LO10-1 Explain what leadership is, when leaders are effective and ineffective, and the sources of power that enable managers to be effective leaders. LO10-2 Identify the traits that show the strongest relationship to leadership, the behaviors leaders engage in, and the limitations of the trait and behavioral models of leadership
10-3 Learning Objectives (cont.) LO10-3 Explain how contingency models of leadership enhance our understanding of effective leadership and management in organizations LO10-4 Describe what transformational leadership is, and explain how managers can engage in it LO10-5 Characterize the relationship between gender and leadership and explain how emotional intelligence may contribute to leadership effectiveness.
10-4 The Nature of Leadership Leadership The process by which a person exerts influence over other people and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to help achieve group or organizational goals
10-5 The Nature of Leadership Leader An individual who is able to exert influence over other people to help achieve group or organizational goals
10-6 The Nature of Leadership Personal Leadership Style The specific ways in which a manager chooses to influence others shapes the way that manager approaches the other tasks of management. The challenge is for managers at all levels to develop an effective personal management style
10-7 The Nature of Leadership Servant leaders leader who has a strong desire to serve and work for the benefit of others shares power with followers strives to ensure that followers’ most important needs are met
10-8 Discussion Question What culture has the most effective leadership style? A. Japanese B. European C. United States D. Middle Eastern
10-9 Leadership Across Cultures Leadership styles may vary among different countries or cultures European managers tend to be more people- oriented than American or Japanese managers Japanese managers are group-oriented, while U.S managers focuses more on profitability Time horizons also are affected by cultures
10-10 Sources of Managerial Power Figure 10.1
10-11 Question? What type of power is the ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards? A. Reward B. Coercive C. Expert D. Legitimate
10-12 Power: The Key to Leadership Legitimate Power The authority that a manager has by virtue of his or her position in an organizational hierarchy Reward Power The ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards
10-13 Power: The Key to Leadership Coercive Power The ability of a manager to punish others Expert Power Power that is based on special knowledge, skills, and expertise that a leader possesses
10-14 Power: The Key to Leadership Referent Power Power that comes from subordinates’ and coworkers’ respect, admiration, and loyalty.
10-15 Empowerment: An Ingredient in Modern Management Empowerment the process of giving employees at all levels the authority to make decisions, be responsible for their outcomes, improve quality, and cut costs
10-16 Empowerment: An Ingredient in Modern Management Empowerment: Increases a manager’s ability to get things done Increases workers’ involvement, motivation, and commitment Gives managers more time to concentrate on their pressing concerns
10-17 Leadership Models Trait Model Focused on identifying personal characteristics that cause effective leadership. Many “traits” are the result of skills and knowledge and effective leaders do not necessarily possess all of these traits.
10-18 Question? Which leadership model identifies the two basic types of behavior that many leaders engaged in to influence their subordinates? A. Fiedler B. Path-Goal C. Behavioral D. Trait
10-19 The Behavior Model Behavioral Model Identifies the two basic types of behavior that many leaders engaged in to influence their subordinates
10-20 The Behavior Model Consideration behavior indicating that a manager trusts, respects, and cares about subordinates Initiating structure behavior that managers engage in to ensure that work gets done, subordinates perform their jobs acceptably, and the organization is efficient and effective
10-21 Contingency Models of Leadership Contingency Models Whether or not a manager is an effective leader is the result of the interplay between what the manager is like, what he does, and the situation in which leadership takes place
10-22 Contingency Models of Leadership Fiedler’s Model Personal characteristics can influence leader effectiveness Leader style is the manager’s characteristic approach to leadership
10-23 Contingency Models of Leadership Relationship- oriented style leaders concerned with developing good relations with their subordinates and to be liked by them. Task-oriented style leaders whose primary concern is to ensure that subordinates perform at a high level and focus on task accomplishment
10-24 Fiedler’s Model Leader–member relations The extent to which followers like, trust, and are loyal to their leader; a determinant of how favorable a situation is for leading. Task structure the extent to which workers tasks are clear-cut so that a leader’s subordinates know what needs to be accomplished and how to go about doing it
10-25 Fiedler’s Model Position Power the amount of legitimate, reward, and coercive power leaders have by virtue of their position Leadership situations are more favorable for leading when position power is strong.
10-26 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Figure 10.2
10-27 House’s Path-Goal Theory A contingency model of leadership proposing the effective leaders can motivate subordinates by: 1.Clearly identifying the outcomes workers are trying to obtain from their jobs. 2.Rewarding workers for high-performance and goal attainment with the outcomes they desire 3.Clarifying the paths to the attainment of the goals, remove obstacles to performance, and express confidence in worker’s ability.
10-28 House’s Path-Goal Theory Directive behaviors setting goals, assigning tasks, showing subordinates how to complete tasks, and taking concrete steps to improve performance Supportive behavior expressing concern for subordinates and looking out for their best interests
10-29 House’s Path-Goal Theory Participative behavior giving subordinates a say in matters that affect them Achievement- oriented behavior Setting very challenging goals, believing in worker’s abilities
10-30 The Leader Substitutes Model Leadership Substitute A characteristic of a subordinate or characteristic of a situation or context that acts in place of the influence of a leader and makes leadership unnecessary
10-31 The Leader Substitutes Model Possible substitutes can be found in: Characteristics of the subordinates: their skills, experience, motivation. Characteristics of context: the extent to which work is interesting and fun.
10-32 Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership Makes subordinates aware of the importance of their jobs and performance to the organization by providing feedback to the worker Makes subordinates aware of their own needs for personal growth and development Motivates workers to work for the good of the organization, not just themselves
10-33 Being a Charismatic Leader Charismatic Leader An enthusiastic, self-confident transformational leader who is able to clearly communicate his or her vision of how good things could be
10-34 Stimulating Subordinates Intellectually Intellectual Stimulation Behavior a leader engages in to make followers be aware of problems and view these problems in new ways, consistent with the leader’s vision
10-35 Engaging in Developmental Consideration Developmental Consideration Behavior a leader engages in to support and encourage followers and help them develop and grow on the job
10-36 Transactional Leadership Transactional Leaders Leaders that motivate subordinates by rewarding them for high performance and reprimanding them for low performance
10-37 Gender and Leadership The number of women managers is rising but is still relatively low in the top levels of management. Stereotypes suggest women are supportive and concerned with interpersonal relations. Men are stereotypically viewed as being directive and focused on task accomplishment.
10-38 Emotional Intelligence and Leadership The Moods of Leaders: Groups whose leaders experienced positive moods had better coordination Groups whose leaders experienced negative moods exerted more effort
10-39 Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Emotional Intelligence Helps leaders develop a vision for their firm Helps motivate subordinates to commit to the vision Energizes subordinates to work to achieve the vision
10-40 Video: Japan CEO Why does the CEO of Japan Airlines take a bus to work? What style of leadership does, CEO Naruka Nishimatsu, exhibit to his employees?