Presentation on theme: "The Formation of Western Europe"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Formation of Western Europe Chapter 14The Formation of Western Europe
2 The Church’s Role Church scholars Were among the very few who could read and writeWorked in monasteriesTranslated Greek and Arabic works into LatinMade new knowledge in philosophy, medicine, and science available in EuropeLaid the foundations for the rise of universities in Europe
3 EnglandWilliam the Conqueror, leader of the Norman Conquest, united most of England.Common law had its beginnings during the reign of Henry II.King John signed the Magna Carta, limiting the king’s power.The Hundred Years’ War between England and France helped define England as a nation.Evolution of Parliament.
4 FranceHugh Capet established the French throne in Paris, and his dynasty gradually expanded their control over most of France.The Hundred Years’ War between England and France helped define France as a nation.Joan of Arc was a unifying factor.
5 SpainFerdinand and Isabella unified the country and expelled Jews and Moors (Reconquista).Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere expanded under Charles V.Used the Inquisition to punish heretics.
6 RussiaIvan the Great threw off the rule of the Mongols, centralized power in Moscow, and expanded the Russian nation.Power was centralized in the hands of the tsar.The Orthodox Church influenced unification.
7 The Crusades Key events of the Crusades Pope Urban’s speech The capture of JerusalemFounding of Crusader statesLoss of Jerusalem to SaladinSack of Constantinople by western Crusaders
8 Effects of the Crusades Weakened the Pope and nobles; strengthened monarchsStimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle EastLeft a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and MuslimsWeakened the Byzantine Empire
9 Economic effects of the Crusades Increased demand for Middle Eastern productsStimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern marketsEncouraged the use of credit and banking
10 The Black Death Impact of the Black Death (Bubonic plague) Decline in populationScarcity of laborTowns freed from feudal obligationsDecline of Church influenceDisruption of trade“Bring out your dead”