Presentation on theme: "A layer of air that forms a protective covering around the planet."— Presentation transcript:
1 A layer of air that forms a protective covering around the planet. AtmosphereA layer of air that forms a protective coveringaround the planet.
2 Our atmosphere serves two purposes: Protects life on Earth from the Sun’s harmful rays.Maintains a balance between amounts of heat absorbed from the sun and the amount of heat that escapes back into space.
4 The atmosphere is composed of: Solids- dust, pollen, saltLiquids- water etc.Gases-Nitrogen (78%) produced fromvolcanic eruptions,dead and decaying plants.Oxygen (21%)produced by plants (photosynthesis)
5 Atmosphere is composed of 5 layers. These layers are based on pressure and temperature,which are affected by altitude.AtmosphereAir Pressure Temperature-as altitude increases, - as altitude increasesair pressure decreases temperature changesWhich are effected byAltitude
9 Both air pressure and temperature are affected by the altitude As altitude increases, pressure decreases. The molecules at the bottom layer (Troposphere) have more pressure on them to force them together than those at the top layer (Thermosphere).Temperature differences result from the way solar energy is absorbed as it moves down through the layers of the atmosphere.
10 Troposphere: 0 – 16 kmTropo=turning or changingWeather takes place here90% of the atmosphere’s total mass-60°c at the top of the troposphereAs altitude increases, temperature decreases
11 Stratosphere: 16 – 50 kmStrato= layer or spreading outJet stream = contains broad, fast flowing “rivers of air” called jet streams. These jet streams can change weather patterns in the troposphere.Upper layer is warmer than lower due to ozone layer.Ozone layer= O3 (Ozone) absorbs sun’s ultraviolet rays, so temperature increases. IT is very thin, only mm thick. O2 (Oxygen) vs O3 (Ozone).-60°c to 0°c
12 Mesosphere: 50 – 80 kmMeso = middleTemperature decreases as altitude increases.Outer mesosphere is the coldest part of the atmosphere. -93°c at the top.Protects Earth’s surface. This is where meteoroids burn up upon entry into the atmosphere: “shooting stars”.Scientists have recently discovered large windstorms with winds speeds up to 320 km/h in this layer.
13 Thermosphere: 80 – 550 kmThermo = heatLargest layer, .001 percent as dense as the air at sea level.Temperature increases as altitude increases. Temperatures reach 1700°c.Very hot because energy coming from the sun strikes this layer first.Energy = heat
14 Ionosphere:Lower layer of the thermosphere composed primarily of oxygen.Absorbs x-rays and gamma rays, which contribute to the high temperature and cause the gas molecules to become electronically charged (ions).Aurora Borealis/Australis: The northern and southern lights. Particles from the sun enter and strike oxygen and nitrogen particles, causing them to glow.The ionosphere can reflect many types of radio waves, allowing them to bounce around the world.
15 Exosphere: Above 550 kmNo true end of atmosphere. Gas molecules simply break free of Earth’s gravity and disperse.Space shuttles, ISS (International Space Station) and satellites orbit the earth in this layer. This is how long distance calls, satellite TV, internet, cell phones, etc., reach you.
17 Learning TargetsIn your science journal, copy the target and rate your level of understanding on a scale of 1-55= exceed expectations,4= understand it, but couldn’t teach it,3=I get it, but not all of it,2=There’s a lot I still need to learn,1= What are we doing?!I can explain the purpose and general characteristics of the earth’s atmosphere.
18 Learning Targets (Cont’d) In your science journal, copy the target and rate your level of understanding on a scale of 1-55= exceed expectations,4= understand it, but couldn’t teach it,3=I get it, but not all of it,2=There’s a lot I still need to learn,1= What are we doing?!I can name all of the layers of the atmosphere and explain the significance of each layer.