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Chapter 2 Weather Factors Section 3 Winds
What causes wind? Wind: The horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure.
What causes winds? All winds are caused by differences in air pressure HIGH LOW
What causes these differences in pressure? Unequal heating of the atmosphere Remember convection currents? As air becomes less dense, its air pressure decreases.
Measuring Wind Winds are described by their direction and speed
Measuring Wind To measure wind direction: we use a wind vane
Measuring Wind To measure wind speed: we use an anemometer
Wind- Chill Factor Wind Chill Factor: Increased cooling caused by the wind
Local Winds Local winds: winds that blow over short distances
Local Winds Local winds are caused by unequal heating of Earth’s surface within a small area
Local Winds Example: cool breezes blowing in from the water to the beach.
Sea Breeze Sea Breeze: The flow of air from an ocean or lake to the land. Daytime!
Land Breeze Land Breeze: The flow of air from land to a body of water. Night time!
Sea and Land Breezes
Monsoons Monsoons: Sea and land breezes over a large region that change directions with seasons
Global Winds Global Winds: Winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances
Temperatures Temperatures near the equator are much warmer than the temperatures near the poles.
Temperature differences between the equator and the poles produce giant convection currents in the atmosphere. Global Convection Currents
This movement of air between the equator and the poles produces global winds. Global Convection Currents
Coriolis Effect: The way Earth’s rotation makes winds curve. The Coriolis Effect
In the Northern Hemisphere In the Southern Hemisphere Global winds turn toward the RIGHT Global winds turn toward the LEFT
The 3 major wind belts are the: 1. trade winds 2.prevailing westerlies 3. the polar easterlies. Global Wind Belts
The 2 calm areas are the: 1. Doldrums 2. Horse Latitudes Global Wind Belts
A calm area where warm air rises Regions near the equator with little or no wind Doldrums
A calm area of falling air Latitudes 30° north and south of the equator Horse Latitudes
Steady easterly winds which blow from the horse latitudes toward the equator. Trade Winds
Winds in the mid latitudes which blow from the west to the east. Play an important part in the weather of the United States Prevailing Westerlies
Cold air near the poles which sinks and flows back toward lower latitudes. Polar Easterlies
Jet Streams: Bands of high- speed winds about 10 kilometers above Earth’s surface Jet Streams
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