5 CRUSADES Definition: The Two Sides: Crusades: Holy War Christians from EuropeMuslim Turks from Middle East
6 The First Crusade Background: Causes: Byzantine Emperor asked Pope for helpByzantine empire was besieged by Muslim armiesByzantine empire lost half its land to Muslim armies by 1071Holy Land closed to Christian pilgrims(person who goes on a religious journey) by Islamic empireFree eastern Christians from Islamic EmpireKeep Europe Christian
7 The CrusadesThe Crusades were an attempt by the European Church to “reclaim the Holy Land”Jerusalem had been conquered by Arabs around 640 AD1095 Pope Urban calls for first Crusade
8 The First Crusade Two Groups went to fight the 1st Crusade: People’s Crusade: 1096Made up of untrained and illiterate mostly peasants with some knights.Lacked military discipline and knowledge and were massacred in Asia Minor by the Turks.Main Crusader Armies:Left Europe in Aug 1096.Gathered in Constantinople in Nov.30-35,000 crusadersLeaders: Count Raymond of Toulouse, S France; Godfrey of Bouillon and his brother Baldwin, commanded French and Germans from Rhineland; Robert, William the Conqueror's eldest son, Normandy; Bohemond, a son of Robert Guiscard, and his nephew Tancred, Italy and Sicily
9 Second Crusade ( )After victory many Christians went back homeThe Turks eventually took back much of the territoryKing of France and Emperor of Germany sent troops to stop the Turks
10 Second Crusade ( )Saladin leads the Muslim Turks to victory, defeating the ChristiansHe was considered a very wise ruler. He was known for his sometimes kind treatment of fallen enemies. Many Christians saw him as a model of knightly chivalry.
11 Third Crusade (1189-1192) Led by King Richard I Won back many cities/territories from SaladinFailed to capture Jerusalem leads to the Fourth Crusade
12 Crusades Continue Through 1200’s Several more crusades attempted with no victories for the ChristiansChildren’s crusade, - 30,000 soldiers - many of them under 12 years old – Never made it to the Holy LandCrusades end around 1285
13 Results of the Crusades I.F. Turks Traveled they would TradeI = Improvements – Ships, Maps, ExplorersF = Feudalism declines because Feudal lords die or spend too much money on military.T = Turks still rule the Holy LandT = Travel – Europeans want to travel moreT = Trade – Europeans want product from the East such as sugar, cotton, silk, spices, etc.
14 Aftermath Victory in 1st Crusade was short lived. Within 50 years, Muslim armies re-conquered JerusalemThe 1st Crusade would be the only victory for the European Christian armies.Succeeding crusades failed to win any territory; including a “Children’s Crusade”
15 The Crusades Conclusion At Least 8 CrusadesEffects of Crusades:Increased dislike among Jews, Christians and MuslimsPope and lords lost powerKings gained PowerTrade with Asia and Middle East rebornInterest in exploration