Beliefs, traditions, and customs of Islam Monotheism: Allah (Arabic word for God) Qur’an (Koran): The word of God Five Pillars of Islam Acceptance of Judeo-Christian prophets, including Moses and Jesus
Muhammad, the Prophet Mecca and Medina on the Arabian Peninsula
Across Asia and Africa and into Spain Muslim empire:
Diffusion along trade routes from Mecca and Medina Expansion despite distances, deserts, and mountains Spread into the Fertile Crescent, Iran, and Central Asia helped by weak Byzantine and Persian empires
Who is the founder of Islam? Explain how Islam came to be a religion. How did it spread? Where did it spread to? Why did it appeal to people at that time?
The first Muslim empire was short-lived Arabic language spread Slavery was not based on race
Death of Ali: Sunni-Shi’a division Sunnis regard Ali as the fourth and last of the "rightly guided caliphs" (successors to Mohammed as leader of the Muslims) Shias feel that Ali should have been the first caliph and that the caliphate should pass down only to direct descendants of Mohammed via Ali and Fatima, They often refer to themselves as ahl al bayt or "people of the house" [of the prophet].
(al-jabr, الجبر ) Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (c. 780-850) learned Indian mathematics and introduced it to the Muslim world through his famous arithmetic text, Kitab al-jam’wal tafriq bi hisab al-Hindi (Book on Addition and Subtraction after the Method of the Indians). He later wrote al- Kitāb al-mu ḫ ta ṣ ar fī ḥ isāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing), which established algebra as a mathematical discipline. الجبرMuhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmīal- Kitāb al-mu ḫ ta ṣ ar fī ḥ isāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala Great… Thanks…
Latin translations of Arabic medical works had a significant influence on the development of modern medicine