2 Dengue fever (DF)Is an acute febrile viral illness presenting with headache , bone or joint and muscular pains , rash and leukopenia caused by arthropod – borne viruses.Dengue hemorrhagic fever ( DHF ) : -Is characterized by four major manifestations :High grade fever ,hemorrhagic phenomenonHepatomegalySigns of circulatory failureDengue shock syndrome (DSS ) : -Hypovolemic shock resulting from plasma leakage
3 DengueDengue is mosquito-borne infection transmitted by the bite of an Aedes mosquitoSymptoms appear 3-14 days after the infective bite.Symptoms range from a mild fever to high fever, with severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, and rash.
4 Epidemiological features Agent factors:Agent: The dengue viruses are arthropod-borne viruses of the Flavivirus genus, within the family Flaviviridae. There are four serologically distinct dengue virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2; DEN-3 and DEN-4)Reservoir of infection: Humans are the main amplifying host of the virus.Host factors: All ages and both sexes are susceptible to dengue fever.
5 Cont..Environmental factors: Start during rainy season when the breeding of the vector mosquito is generally abundant.Modes of transmissionIt is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Aedes species mosquito. Worldwide, Aedes aegypti, a day-biting species, is the major vector for human-to-human transmission .Incubation period: days
6 Clinical features (three forms): - Classical dengue fever Symptoms of typical uncomplicated (classic) dengue usually start with fever within 4 to 7 days after bite by an infected mosquito and includeHigh fever, up to 105ºFSevere headacheRetro-orbital (behind the eye) painSevere joint and muscle painNausea and vomitingRash: may appear over most of the body 3 to 4 days after the fever begins, and then subsides after 1 to 2 days.Prolonged fatigue and depression are typical symptoms during the recovery phase.
7 Dengue hemorrhagic fever Fever: acute onset, high, continuous, and lasting for 2-7 days.Marked damage to blood and lymph vesselsBleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin, causing purplish bruises.Haemorrhagic manifestation including petechia, purpura, ecchymosis, epistaxis, gum bleeding, haematemesis and malenaThe liver is often enlarged. This form of dengue disease can cause death.
8 Grading of severity of DHF Grade I: the only haemorrhagic manifestation is a positive tourniquet test.Grade II: Patients with spontaneous bleedingGrade III: Circulatory failure manifested by rapid and weak pulse, low blood pressure, with presence of cold and clammy skin and restlessness.Grade IV: Profound shock with undetectable blood pressure and pulse
9 Dengue shock syndrome- The most severe form of dengue disease, include all of the symptoms of classic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, plusMassive bleedingShockThis form of the disease usually occurs in children (sometimes adults) experiencing their second dengue infection. It is sometimes fatal, especially in children and young adults.
10 Diagnosis From symptoms. Positive tourniquet test. Blood test: ThrombocytopeniaHaemoconcentration, haemotocrit increased by 20%.During 3-7 days of illness, the virus can be isolated from blood/serum. From 8th day, specific antibodies can be detected by serological tests.
11 Clinical criteria to hospitalize with DF Severe abdominal painPassage of black stoolBleeding into the skin or from the nose or gumsSweatingCold skin
12 It is important to maintain hydration. Avoid aspirin. TreatmentThe management of dengue fever is symptomatic and supportive, including careful management of fever, bed rest, fluid balance, electrolytes and clotting parameters, is crucial for the case management of dengue hemorrhagic fever.It is important to maintain hydration. Avoid aspirin.Dengue haemorrhagic fever is a potentially lethal complication, affecting mainly children. Early clinical diagnosis and careful clinical management by experienced physicians and nurses increase survival of patients.
13 particularly early morning and late afternoon. PreventionPersonal protective measures are aimed at preventing mosquito bites during the day,particularly early morning and late afternoon.use personal insect repellentsuse insecticide mats to kill mosquitoesscreen living and sleeping areaswear long, loose clothing when outdoorsspray indoors in dark places (eg.behind cupboards, under beds)
14 throwing out rubbish that collects water Cont..The best form to control is to get rid of dengue mosquito breeding sites around the home.Dengue mosquitoes breed in containers that hold water.These include buckets, tyres, pot plant basesRoof guttering, rainwater tanks are also potential breeding sites.Recommendations to control breeding include:tipping out containers which can hold waterstoring containers in a dry placethrowing out rubbish that collects water