Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Notes Continued Evidence of Evolution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 13 Notes Continued Evidence of Evolution
2 There are five modern day evidences that support the work of Darwin Age of the EarthFossil evidenceAnatomical evidenceBiochemical evidenceEmbryological evidence
3 1. Age of the EarthWhile many bible scholars estimated the earth to be 30,000-40,000 years old, Darwin predicted the Earth to be Millions of years old. (Deep Time)Modern evidence suggests the earth to be 4.6 Billion years old
4 2. FossilsFossils are the remains or traces of remains of organisms that lived long agoTypically are the bones, teeth or shells of past animalsImprints and casts are other types of FossilsMost fossils are formed in sedimentary rock
5 FossilsAge is important! Fossils can be “dated” by radioisotopes of Carbon-14, Uranium-238 or Potassium-40.The half-life of these chemicals is the amount of time it takes for that chemical to decay by 50%Half-life for Carbon-14 is 5,730 years
6 Fossils Age of the rock a fossil is found in, can also be tested. Law of Superposition- fossils found deepest in the rock strata are older than the strata at the top. Is useful for following evolution progressionStudy of Fossils is called Paleontology
8 3. Biochemical EvidenceChemicals such as Proteins, Amino Acids and Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA) can be studied to compare organisms.examples: chimpanzees and Humans are 96% the same by chemical compositionHorseshoe Crabs are more related to Arachinids than Crusteaceans.
10 4. Anatomical EvidenceVestigial Organs or Structures- have no apparent use or function.May be clues to a distant pastExamples: wings of flightless birds, pelvic bones in Whales and some Snakes
11 Vestigial organs continued Human Vestigial organs- Appendix, Wisdom and Canine teeth, Male nipples, Human Tailbone and Muscles to move ears
12 Homologous Structures- Body parts that differ in use but are similar in structure. A Man’s arm and a Whale flipper would be considered Homologous.
13 Analogous Structures- Body parts that are different in structure but perform a similar task. Ex. Bats wing, Butterfly’s wing and Birds wing are analogous
14 5. Embryological Evidence In early embryos, Organisms that are related develop in a similar way. All vertebrates develop alike until late stages.Under this concept, all vertebrates are more closely related to Echinoderms (starfish) than other invertebratesSee next slide.