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Chapter 13 Notes Continued Evidence of Evolution

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1 Chapter 13 Notes Continued Evidence of Evolution

2 There are five modern day evidences that support the work of Darwin
Age of the Earth Fossil evidence Anatomical evidence Biochemical evidence Embryological evidence

3 1. Age of the Earth While many bible scholars estimated the earth to be 30,000-40,000 years old, Darwin predicted the Earth to be Millions of years old. (Deep Time) Modern evidence suggests the earth to be 4.6 Billion years old

4 2. Fossils Fossils are the remains or traces of remains of organisms that lived long ago Typically are the bones, teeth or shells of past animals Imprints and casts are other types of Fossils Most fossils are formed in sedimentary rock

5 Fossils Age is important! Fossils can be “dated” by radioisotopes of Carbon-14, Uranium-238 or Potassium-40. The half-life of these chemicals is the amount of time it takes for that chemical to decay by 50% Half-life for Carbon-14 is 5,730 years

6 Fossils Age of the rock a fossil is found in, can also be tested.
Law of Superposition- fossils found deepest in the rock strata are older than the strata at the top. Is useful for following evolution progression Study of Fossils is called Paleontology

7 Law of Superposition

8 3. Biochemical Evidence Chemicals such as Proteins, Amino Acids and Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA) can be studied to compare organisms. examples: chimpanzees and Humans are 96% the same by chemical composition Horseshoe Crabs are more related to Arachinids than Crusteaceans.


10 4. Anatomical Evidence Vestigial Organs or Structures- have no apparent use or function. May be clues to a distant past Examples: wings of flightless birds, pelvic bones in Whales and some Snakes

11 Vestigial organs continued
Human Vestigial organs- Appendix, Wisdom and Canine teeth, Male nipples, Human Tailbone and Muscles to move ears

12 Homologous Structures- Body parts that differ in use but are similar in structure.
A Man’s arm and a Whale flipper would be considered Homologous.

13 Analogous Structures- Body parts that are different in structure but perform a similar task.
Ex. Bats wing, Butterfly’s wing and Birds wing are analogous

14 5. Embryological Evidence
In early embryos, Organisms that are related develop in a similar way. All vertebrates develop alike until late stages. Under this concept, all vertebrates are more closely related to Echinoderms (starfish) than other invertebrates See next slide.


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