Presentation on theme: "UNIT #1: BEING A HISTORIAN Using Primary and Secondary Sources Part 1: Locating, Differentiating, and Interpreting Sources By: Mr. Mathis – Johnston Middle."— Presentation transcript:
UNIT #1: BEING A HISTORIAN Using Primary and Secondary Sources Part 1: Locating, Differentiating, and Interpreting Sources By: Mr. Mathis – Johnston Middle School
STUDENT-FRIENDLY OBJECTIVES I can use computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to locate information about Texas history. I can distinguish between and interpret primary sources and secondary sources to learn about Texas history. I can use the ESPN categorization to learn about events in Texas history.
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How is the examination of historical record/evidence enhanced by the analysis of both primary and secondary sources? What is the difference between primary and secondary sources? How can the historical record be both huge and limited?
Primary sources are parts of the historical record from people who are participants in, observe and record or leave evidence/artifacts about those events or times. PRIMARY SOURCES 1900 Galveston Storm
EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY SOURCES Primary sources can be public documents [laws, legal, official text, books]; private documents [diaries, letters, cookbooks…] images/audio, objects, personal items… Often, primary sources include people’s impressions or opinions. Primary sources may contain the word I. Historians access and interpret the content, reliability and validity of primary sources to separate facts from the opinions and get an accurate picture of events.
Secondary sources have already synthesized and interpreted multiple sources and contain descriptions and interpretations of events. SECONDARY SOURCES
EXAMPLES OF SECONDARY SOURCES Secondary sources are often Textbooks, magazines articles, encyclopedias or anything that describes past/current events; Created by people who rely on someone else’s descriptions of what actually happened. We use secondary sources because they are convenient. These sources represent the historian or authors INTERPRETATION of primary source material. In a primary sources the reader (historian) interprets the source him/herself.
An artifact is a man-made object that has some kind of cultural significance. A simple object (such as a tool or weapon) that was made by people in the past. ARTIFACT
Historical records are literally any piece of evidence from the past. Most historical evidence is lost. HISTORICAL RECORD Historical records/evidence do not have to be written.
CSI – A FAMILY DINNER It was a day like any other, you have been forced to go out to dinner with your family. You had just finished watching episode of CSI Miami… Someone or something turns up missing… It’s up to you… What would be some examples of historical record or evidence of your evening with your family?
Receipt for the dinner Menu Trash left on the table Someone who took a photo of the family Waitress memory of serving the family Location of the restaurant Fingerprints Patrons LOOKING FOR HISTORICAL RECORD Evidence
Validity refers to the quality of being logically or factually sound; soundness or cogency. Example: Is this website a valid secondary source for my research paper? VALIDITY
WHICH WEBSITES TO TRUST .gov sites are usually the most reliable .edu sites are associated with an educational institution and have high reliability .org sites are associated with education and/or non-profit organizations and are generally reliable .com sites are established for commercial purposes – they often represent bias in their choice of documents to include as well as significant advertisements Personal websites are often the least reliable as sources of information for historical research.
ESPN Economic factors – relate to money, taxes, industry, agriculture, jobs, availability or resources, way people organize for the production, distribution and so on. Social Factors – relate to population density, immigration, cultural diversity, lifestyle, and leisure time. Political Factors – relate to the functions and procedures of government, laws, and elected officials; factors that deal with the topic of power and control eNvironmental Factors – relate to the setting or physical environment of a place/time/event