Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System Pre-assessment Questions:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Respiratory System Pre-assessment Questions: What is cellular respiration?How does the respiratory system relate to cellular respiration?How does the circulatory system relate to the respiratory system and to cellular respiration?
2 Respiratory SystemI. OverviewA. Primary functions:Gas exchange: Which gases and in which direction?To absorb oxygenRelease carbon dioxideWarms, humidifies and filters airB.How does gas exchange relate to cellular respiration?The respiratory system brings in the oxygen and removes the carbon dioxide so you can produce energy.C6H12O6 + 6O > 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
3 RS brings oxygen into the body 2. Oxygenated blood gets pumped by the CS to cells of the body3. O2 is exchanged for CO2 at the cellular levelYEAH! I’M ALIVE!5. CO2 is expelled by the lungs4. Deoxygenated blood is transported back to the lungs via the CS
4 Respiratory System II. Anatomy A. Nose / Nasal Cavity 1. Air enters the body and is filtered, warmed and humidified HOW and WHY?2. Lined with cilia and mucous WHY?
5 Respiratory System B. Pharynx (Throat) 1. Passageway for air and food C. Epiglottis1. Covers the opening to the trachea when you swallow2. Why?** prevents food from “going down the wrong way.”3. What is the wrong way?
6 Respiratory System D. Larynx “Voice Box” 1. A pathway lined with several pieces of cartilage which are connected to muscles.2. Allows us to communicate3. One piece, the thyroid cartilage forms the “Adam’s apple “.Why do boys have a larger Adam’s apple?***Testosterone causes it to grow larger.
7 Respiratory System E. Trachea 1. Cartilaginous tube - “Windpipe” 2. Divides into right and left bronchi
8 Respiratory System F. Bronchi 1. Two large passageways in the chest cavity – each leads to one lung2. Subdivide into smaller bronchioles3. Smooth muscle surrounds the bronchi and bronchioles and control size of airway4. Bronchioles subdivide into millions of tiny air sacs called alveoliTalk about bronchitis
9 Respiratory System G. Alveoli 1. Oxygen dissolves in the moisture on the inner surface, then diffuses across capillaries into the blood2. Carbon dioxide in the bloodstream diffuses in the opposite direction
10 alveoli in each healthy lung! There are 150 millionalveoli in each healthylung!BronchioleSurface area of all 300 million alveoli would cover classroom floor.Capillary
11 Respiratory System III. Breathing A. Controlled by the diaphragm B. CO2 levels in blood determine diaphragm contraction; monitored by cells in brainAir inhaledAir exhaledRib cage lowersRib cage risesDiaphragmDiaphragmInhalationExhalation
12 Quiz on Respiratory Structures PharynxNasal CavityMouthTracheaEpiglottisLungBronchioleBronchusDiaphragm
13 Respiratory System IV. Diseases of the RS A. Asthma B. Bronchitis 1. Allergic reaction2. Smooth muscles contract, narrowing the airways3. Clogs the airways with mucusB. Bronchitis1. Excess mucus and inflammation of the bronchioles2. Caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke and air pollutantsInhaler relaxes muscles around airways. mast cells Cells that synthesize and release histamine, as during an allergic response; found most often in connective tissue surrounding blood vessels. histamine A chemical released during the inflammatory response that increases capillary blood flow in the affected area, causing heat and redness.
14 Respiratory System C. Cystic Fibrosis 1. Genetic defect that causes excessive mucus production that clogs the airways; die from drowningD. Pneumonia1. Inflammation of the lungs caused by Streptococcus pneumoniaeE. Tuberculosis1. Bacterial infection (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) of the lungs that causes the formation of hard nodules and crusty dead spots in lungs
15 Respiratory System V. Effects of Smoking 1. Nicotine constricts bronchioles, decreasing airflow in lungs = bad2. CO binds to hemoglobin reducing O2 carrying capacity = bad3. Irritants in smoke caused increased mucus secretion and swelling of mucosal lining = bad4. Irritants in smoke inhibit movement and eventually destroy cilia in lining of RS = bad5. Over time, the elastic fibers of the lungs are destroyed causing collapse of small bronchioles and the trapping of air in alveoli = bad