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Respiratory System Pre-assessment Questions:

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1 Respiratory System Pre-assessment Questions:
What is cellular respiration? How does the respiratory system relate to cellular respiration? How does the circulatory system relate to the respiratory system and to cellular respiration?

2 Respiratory System I. Overview A. Primary functions: Gas exchange: Which gases and in which direction? To absorb oxygen Release carbon dioxide Warms, humidifies and filters air B.How does gas exchange relate to cellular respiration? The respiratory system brings in the oxygen and removes the carbon dioxide so you can produce energy. C6H12O6 + 6O > 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

3 RS brings oxygen into the body
2. Oxygenated blood gets pumped by the CS to cells of the body 3. O2 is exchanged for CO2 at the cellular level YEAH! I’M ALIVE! 5. CO2 is expelled by the lungs 4. Deoxygenated blood is transported back to the lungs via the CS

4 Respiratory System II. Anatomy A. Nose / Nasal Cavity
1. Air enters the body and is filtered, warmed and humidified HOW and WHY? 2. Lined with cilia and mucous WHY?

5 Respiratory System B. Pharynx (Throat) 1. Passageway for air and food
C. Epiglottis 1. Covers the opening to the trachea when you swallow 2. Why? ** prevents food from “going down the wrong way.” 3. What is the wrong way?

6 Respiratory System D. Larynx “Voice Box”
1. A pathway lined with several pieces of cartilage which are connected to muscles. 2. Allows us to communicate 3. One piece, the thyroid cartilage forms the “Adam’s apple “. Why do boys have a larger Adam’s apple? ***Testosterone causes it to grow larger.

7 Respiratory System E. Trachea 1. Cartilaginous tube - “Windpipe”
2. Divides into right and left bronchi

8 Respiratory System F. Bronchi
1. Two large passageways in the chest cavity – each leads to one lung 2. Subdivide into smaller bronchioles 3. Smooth muscle surrounds the bronchi and bronchioles and control size of airway 4. Bronchioles subdivide into millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli Talk about bronchitis

9 Respiratory System G. Alveoli
1. Oxygen dissolves in the moisture on the inner surface, then diffuses across capillaries into the blood 2. Carbon dioxide in the bloodstream diffuses in the opposite direction

10 alveoli in each healthy lung!
There are 150 million alveoli in each healthy lung! Bronchiole Surface area of all 300 million alveoli would cover classroom floor. Capillary

11 Respiratory System III. Breathing A. Controlled by the diaphragm
B. CO2 levels in blood determine diaphragm contraction; monitored by cells in brain Air inhaled Air exhaled Rib cage lowers Rib cage rises Diaphragm Diaphragm Inhalation Exhalation

12 Quiz on Respiratory Structures
Pharynx Nasal Cavity Mouth Trachea Epiglottis Lung Bronchiole Bronchus Diaphragm

13 Respiratory System IV. Diseases of the RS A. Asthma B. Bronchitis
1. Allergic reaction 2. Smooth muscles contract, narrowing the airways 3. Clogs the airways with mucus B. Bronchitis 1. Excess mucus and inflammation of the bronchioles 2. Caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke and air pollutants Inhaler relaxes muscles around airways. mast cells  Cells that synthesize and release histamine, as during an allergic response; found most often in connective tissue surrounding blood vessels. histamine  A chemical released during the inflammatory response that increases capillary blood flow in the affected area, causing heat and redness.

14 Respiratory System C. Cystic Fibrosis
1. Genetic defect that causes excessive mucus production that clogs the airways; die from drowning D. Pneumonia 1. Inflammation of the lungs caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae E. Tuberculosis 1. Bacterial infection (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) of the lungs that causes the formation of hard nodules and crusty dead spots in lungs

15 Respiratory System V. Effects of Smoking
1. Nicotine constricts bronchioles, decreasing airflow in lungs = bad 2. CO binds to hemoglobin reducing O2 carrying capacity = bad 3. Irritants in smoke caused increased mucus secretion and swelling of mucosal lining = bad 4. Irritants in smoke inhibit movement and eventually destroy cilia in lining of RS = bad 5. Over time, the elastic fibers of the lungs are destroyed causing collapse of small bronchioles and the trapping of air in alveoli = bad

16 Respiratory System

17 Respiratory System VI. Smoking-Related Diseases
A. Emphysema: Destruction of the walls of the alveoli resulting in less surface for gas exchange

18 Respiratory System B. Chronic bronchitis: Excessive secretion of bronchial mucus

19 Respiratory System C. Lung Cancer: leading cause of cancer deaths in US; most people die within a year of initial diagnosis; 85% of cases are related to smoking


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