# NOTES: 17.1 – Thermochemistry – The Flow of Energy

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NOTES: 17.1 – Thermochemistry – The Flow of Energy

Thermochemistry ● THERMOCHEMISTRY: the study of energy (in the form of heat) changes that accompany physical & chemical changes ● Heat flows from high to low (hot to cool)

Energy (E): ● measures the capacity to do work or supply heat
● energy is weightless, odorless, and tasteless ● can only be detected because of its effects

Energy (E): ● energy stored within the structural units (i.e. molecules) of chemical substances is called: CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY (PE) EXAMPLE: gasoline contains a large amount of chemical PE; when the gasoline burns in your car engine, the energy is released to do mechanical work

Heat (q): ● measure of the total amount of energy (E) transferred from an object with high energy to an object with low energy ● cannot be detected by the senses or instruments…only changes caused by heat can be detected

Magnitude of Heat Flow 1 kJ = 1,000 J 1 calorie = 4.184 J
● Units of heat energy: 1 kcal = 1,000 cal = 1 Cal (nutritional) 1 kJ = 1,000 J 1 calorie = J 1 kcal = kJ

Heat (q): ● heat always flows from a warmer object to a cooler object
EXAMPLE: when you put an ice cube into a cup of hot water, heat will flow from the hot water to the ice cube… the ice melts and the water’s temp. decreases

Temperature (T): ● Measure of average kinetic energy
● Indicates relative amounts of energy ● Indicates the hotness or coldness of an object

Thermochemistry ● all chemical reactions and changes in physical state (melting, freezing, etc.) involve either the release or absorption of HEAT ● in thermochemistry we examine the flow of heat from a “system” (i.e. a chemical reaction) to its surroundings (or vice versa)

How does energy change? ● Law of Conservation of Energy:
-In any chemical reaction or physical process, energy is neither created nor destroyed; -all of the energy involved in a process can be accounted for as: work, stored energy, or heat.

Thermochemistry ● exothermic reactions: release energy in the form of heat; show a negative value for quantity of heat (q < 0) ● endothermic reactions: absorb energy in the form of heat; show a positive value for quantity of heat (q > 0)

EXOTHERMIC CHANGE: ● losing energy
● products have less energy than the reactants ● ΔH = (-)

ENDOTHERMIC CHANGE: ● gaining energy
● products have more energy then reactants ● Δ H = (+)

Endothermic or Exothermic?
● H2O (l)  H2O (s)

Endothermic or Exothermic?
● H2O (l)  H2O (s) Exothermic (liquid water freezing to solid ice)

Endothermic or Exothermic?
● Melting - solid to liquid ● Boiling - liquid to gas ● Condensing - gas to liquid ● Freezing - liquid to solid ● Sublimation - solid to gas

Endothermic or Exothermic?
● Melting - solid to liquid endothermic ● Boiling - liquid to gas endothermic ● Condensing - gas to liquid exothermic ● Freezing - liquid to solid exothermic ● Sublimation - solid to gas endothermic

In conclusion… ● Solid  Liquid  Gas (endothermic)
● Gas  Liquid  Solid (exothermic)

Cup of water at 30o C vs. tub full of water at 28o C:
● Which has a higher kinetic energy? ● If the cup of water was poured into the tub of water, would there be a transfer of heat at that moment? Would the temperature change?

Heating and Cooling Curves:
● When a plot of temperature vs. time is plotted as a pure substance is heated or cooled, a plateau is observed at the substance’s melting and boiling points.

Heating and Cooling Curves:
● In other words, as energy is added or removed from a substance, there is no change in temperature at the pure substance’s melting and boiling points until it has completely melted or boiled. ● mmkay