From the 11 th – 13 th centuries, European Christians go on a series of military campaigns to regain the Holy Lands from the Muslims.
Pope Urban II Urban II begins the 1 st Crusade. Council of Clement in 1095, Pope Urban II urged Christians to take up arms in a holy war.
Knights and various warriors join up across Europe. Joined for various reasons: adventure, fighting, opportunity for riches or a title.
First Crusade Takes place in 1099. Several thousand European soldiers invade Jerusalem and massacre thousand of inhabitants. Four Christian states created in the region.
Second Crusade Begins around 1120. Attempt to regain one of the Christian states that had fallen to the Muslims Failed terribly.
Saladin 1187 Jerusalem fell to Muslims under Saladin Saladin well respected and fair Muslim leader. After defeat of Christians Saladin allows Christians to leave peacefully.
Third Crusade Led by Frederick Barbarossa, Richard I, Phillip II. Crusade overall was not successful. However Richard I able to negotiate to allow Christians to visit Holy lands....
Fourth Crusade Saladin dies in 1193, so Pope Innocent III started the Fourth Crusade However leaders of the Fourth Crusade saw an opportunity to neutralize their largest commercial competitor (Constantinople) in 1204. Invade and take Constantinople.
Children’s Crusade 1212 12 year old Nicholas of Cologne leads thousands of youth to Rome visit pope and discuss his crusade. Pope turns him away. Group splits some return home while others try to get to holy land. Merchants sale kids into slavery.
Impact of the Crusades Benefited various Italian cities economically by bringing more people to the region for trade and development.. Begins attacks on the Jewish because they were considered infidels as well.