Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: Diversity Issues in Group Work"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 8: Diversity Issues in Group Work Introduction to Group Work, 5th EditionEdited by David Capuzzi, Douglas R. Gross, and Mark D. Stauffer
2 Social Identity Groups Social identity groups: a collection of people who share physical, cultural, or social characteristics within one of the categories of social identityCategoriesRace EthnicityGender Sexual orientationSocioeconomic status DisabilityAge Religion
3 Multiculturalism & Diversity Multiculturalism: the term used in relation to differences based strictly on race and ethnicityDiversity: Aspects of difference among individual and groups
4 Elements of DiversityThree elements that impact counseling and group workCultureIndividual identity developmentRelationships between social identity groupsCulture: characteristic values, behaviors, products, and worldviews of a group with a distinct sociohistorical context
5 Models of Identity Development Racial/Cultural Identity Development ModelConformity, Dissonance, Resistance/Immersion, Introspection, Integrative awarenessWhite Racial Identity ModelContact, Progressive awareness, Attitudes, Personal responsibility, Shifting protective strategies, Autonomy.
6 Models of Identity Development Oppression ModelStereotypes: negative generalizationsPrejudice: judgments without adequate information or contactDiscrimination: behavior of individuals or institutions with differential/harmful effectsPrivilege: unearned access to resources available to members of some groups
7 Key PointsWithin each identity group category, specific identities are more esteemed and have more power than others in the context of a particular society.Dominant or agent group: collection of social identities with more powerTarget groups: social identity groups with less power
8 Cross-Cultural Competencies and Objectives Counselor Self-AwarenessWithout adequate awareness of stereotypes, biases, and culturally based reactions that are part of life as cultural beings, counselors will unknowingly view culturally different clients’ lives, issues, and interactions from their own, rather than clients’, perspectives.Awareness of Client’s WorldviewWhile cultural identification can be seen as a person’s sense of belonging to a group, worldview is the sum total of his or her conceptions of the world that guide his or her meaning-making, decisions, and behavior.
9 Culturally Appropriate Counseling Skills Relevant aspects of communication styleProxemics (personal space)Kinesics (movement)Paralanguage (voice)Low context (verbal content)High context (shared understanding)
10 Groups as a Social Microcosm Main diversity themes in groupsPower is distributed according to each person’s social role in group.Power may be distributed according to numerical representation of social identity groups within the group.Members of social agent groups may have more power than those of target groups.
11 Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors Appropriate starting point for exploring diversity-sensitive group interventionProvides framework for much of the group counseling conducted todayPay attention to diversity and the differential effects on group membersOtherwise the therapeutic factors might be counterproductive for some group members
12 Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors Instillation of hopeUniversalityImparting informationAltruismCorrective recapitulation of family groupDevelopment of socializing techniquesImitative behaviorInterpersonal learningGroup cohesivenessCatharsisExistential factors
13 Diversity Concerns during the Definitive Stage In a diverse group, acknowledgment of cultural differences in self-disclosure and expression of feeling is important.Self-determined levels of participation must be respected.Group members should be encouraged to tell their stories at their own pace.
14 Diversity Concerns during the Personal Involvement Stage Because of increased levels of trust, group members may begin to express deeper differences.Interactions may be challenging and there may be conflict.For diverse groups, challenge and conflict may be focused on power relationships, bias, and feelings related to social identity.
15 Diversity Concerns during the Group Involvement Stage Leaders of diverse groups should encourage members to explore the impact of diversity and culture on personal problem formation, problem resolution, and resiliency.
16 Diversity Concerns during the Enhancement and Closure Stage For members of some social identity groups and cultures, the goal of transferring new behaviors to their everyday lives may be counter-productive or even dangerous.Group members need to be encouraged to weigh potential consequences.
17 Impact of Diversity upon the Group Leadership Process Customary approaches to the following may not be appropriate:GoalsGroup composition and screeningPre-group orientationTime and settingsProcess goals and skills