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Chapter 8: Diversity Issues in Group Work

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1 Chapter 8: Diversity Issues in Group Work
Introduction to Group Work, 5th Edition Edited by David Capuzzi, Douglas R. Gross, and Mark D. Stauffer

2 Social Identity Groups
Social identity groups: a collection of people who share physical, cultural, or social characteristics within one of the categories of social identity Categories Race  Ethnicity Gender  Sexual orientation Socioeconomic status  Disability Age  Religion

3 Multiculturalism & Diversity
Multiculturalism: the term used in relation to differences based strictly on race and ethnicity Diversity: Aspects of difference among individual and groups

4 Elements of Diversity Three elements that impact counseling and group work Culture Individual identity development Relationships between social identity groups Culture: characteristic values, behaviors, products, and worldviews of a group with a distinct sociohistorical context

5 Models of Identity Development
Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model Conformity, Dissonance, Resistance/Immersion, Introspection, Integrative awareness White Racial Identity Model Contact, Progressive awareness, Attitudes, Personal responsibility, Shifting protective strategies, Autonomy.

6 Models of Identity Development
Oppression Model Stereotypes: negative generalizations Prejudice: judgments without adequate information or contact Discrimination: behavior of individuals or institutions with differential/harmful effects Privilege: unearned access to resources available to members of some groups

7 Key Points Within each identity group category, specific identities are more esteemed and have more power than others in the context of a particular society. Dominant or agent group: collection of social identities with more power Target groups: social identity groups with less power

8 Cross-Cultural Competencies and Objectives
Counselor Self-Awareness Without adequate awareness of stereotypes, biases, and culturally based reactions that are part of life as cultural beings, counselors will unknowingly view culturally different clients’ lives, issues, and interactions from their own, rather than clients’, perspectives. Awareness of Client’s Worldview While cultural identification can be seen as a person’s sense of belonging to a group, worldview is the sum total of his or her conceptions of the world that guide his or her meaning-making, decisions, and behavior.

9 Culturally Appropriate Counseling Skills
Relevant aspects of communication style Proxemics (personal space) Kinesics (movement) Paralanguage (voice) Low context (verbal content) High context (shared understanding)

10 Groups as a Social Microcosm
Main diversity themes in groups Power is distributed according to each person’s social role in group. Power may be distributed according to numerical representation of social identity groups within the group. Members of social agent groups may have more power than those of target groups.

11 Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors
Appropriate starting point for exploring diversity-sensitive group intervention Provides framework for much of the group counseling conducted today Pay attention to diversity and the differential effects on group members Otherwise the therapeutic factors might be counterproductive for some group members

12 Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors
Instillation of hope Universality Imparting information Altruism Corrective recapitulation of family group Development of socializing techniques Imitative behavior Interpersonal learning Group cohesiveness Catharsis Existential factors

13 Diversity Concerns during the Definitive Stage
In a diverse group, acknowledgment of cultural differences in self-disclosure and expression of feeling is important. Self-determined levels of participation must be respected. Group members should be encouraged to tell their stories at their own pace.

14 Diversity Concerns during the Personal Involvement Stage
Because of increased levels of trust, group members may begin to express deeper differences. Interactions may be challenging and there may be conflict. For diverse groups, challenge and conflict may be focused on power relationships, bias, and feelings related to social identity.

15 Diversity Concerns during the Group Involvement Stage
Leaders of diverse groups should encourage members to explore the impact of diversity and culture on personal problem formation, problem resolution, and resiliency.

16 Diversity Concerns during the Enhancement and Closure Stage
For members of some social identity groups and cultures, the goal of transferring new behaviors to their everyday lives may be counter-productive or even dangerous. Group members need to be encouraged to weigh potential consequences.

17 Impact of Diversity upon the Group Leadership Process
Customary approaches to the following may not be appropriate: Goals Group composition and screening Pre-group orientation Time and settings Process goals and skills

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