Presentation on theme: "The Global Village Marshall McLuhan: “Global village” “Members of every nation are connected by communication technology.”"— Presentation transcript:
The Global Village Marshall McLuhan: “Global village” “Members of every nation are connected by communication technology.”
Culture and Interpersonal Communication Culture: The relatively specialized lifestyle of a group of people. Includes: values, beliefs, ways of behaving and communicating, artifacts
Cultural and other influences UNIVERSAL LEVEL: characteristics that are shared by all humans (biological traits) INDIVIDUAL LEVEL: characteristics that are unique to a particular individual. COLLECTIVE LEVEL: certain values, attitudes, and, consequently, behavior, are shared with other members of a group (culture, subculture)
Acquiring culture Enculturation: learning culture into which you were born Acculturation: learning a new culture
Boundaries of cultures Not all members of a culture are alike; each member has a unique view of their culture. The differences are due, at least in part, to the existence of subcultures: groups within a culture whose members share many of the values of the culture but also have some values that differ from the larger culture.
Fundamental Concepts In-groups Out-groups Social identity Co-culture
Degrees of Cultural Significance Encounters fit along a spectrum of “interculturalness” Least intercultural: Cultural differences mean little Most intercultural: Differences, backgrounds, beliefs noteworthy “Salience”: The weight we attach to a particular person or phenomenon.
Interpersonal / Intercultural significance
American culture Liberty: the perception that a minimum of limitations should be preserved Support for free enterprise Individual responsibility. Equality: Equal opportunity, but not equal outcomes. Democracy: Government accountable to the people. Civic duty: People should be involved in community and civic affairs. Interpersonal Trust. Confident expectation of reliable and truthful cooperation.
Cultural traits Power Distance Individualism / Collectivism Uncertainty Avoidance Achievement High- and Low-Context cultures
Individualism / Collectivism The extent to which individuals are expected to look after themselves, as opposed to strong social and family ties that offer unconditional support and protection in exchange for loyalty. Individualistic societies are characterized by open choices, while collectivistic societies are characterized by prescribed choices.
Power distance The extent to which the less powerful expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Power is distributed by the role ones play. Mother - child, Boss - subordinate, Teacher - student. High Power distance usually indicates authoritarian structures in governments. Low Power distance indicates more open societies. Members are not punished for challenging authority.
Uncertainty Avoidance/ Tolerance for Ambiguity The extent to which uncertain or unknown situations are perceived as threatening. High Uncertainty avoidance indicates a strong desire for stable and predictable relationships. Often, not to lose security, people agree to conform. They agree to any form of social rules for the sake of security and peace.
Achievement versus Nurturing (Masculine/Feminine) It measures the extent to which assertiveness, ambition, and achievement dominate in particular culture. Societies characterized by achievement orientation judge individuals by their accomplishments, while societies with ascriptive values measure individuals by their group membership.
Interpersonal Trust. Trust can be defined as non opportunistic behavior. A person whom we trust will not take advantage of a situation to promote his own interest
High- Versus Low-Context Anthropologist Edward T. Hall: Low-context culture Language expresses thoughts, feelings, and ideas as directly as possible. High-context culture Relies heavily on subtle, often nonverbal cues to maintain social harmony
Low ‑ and High ‑ Context Communication High ‑ context messages Message senders expect other people to know what is on their mind and they are not specific when they talk; the listener is supposed to figure out what is happening. High ‑ context communication tends to be indirect and vague.
Low ‑ and High ‑ Context Communication Low ‑ context messages They are characterized by the majority of the information being in the explicit code. Message senders are expected to express themselves clearly and directly, limiting the need for the listener to figure out what is happening.
Low ‑ and High ‑ Context Communication Low ‑ and high ‑ context messages occur in both individualistic and collectivistic cultures, but low ‑ context messages predominate in individualistic cultures and high ‑ context messages predominate in collectivistic cultures.
Verbal Communication Styles Three important differences: Directness and indirectness Elaborateness and succinctness Formality and informality
Nonverbal Codes People of all cultures convey messages through facial expression and gesture. What similarities or differences in facial expression interpretations exist between cultures? Gestures? What cultures have larger “personal space” zones? How do personal space variances create difficult communication situations?
Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Motivation and Attitude / Desire Tolerance for ambiguity / Living with uncertainty Open-mindedness Beware of ethnocentrism Beware of prejudice Beware of stereotyping Knowledge and skill Mindfulness Passive observation / Active strategies Use appropriate self-disclosure