2“Members of every nation are connected by communication technology.” The Global VillageMarshall McLuhan: “Global village”“Members of every nation are connected by communication technology.”
3Culture and Interpersonal Communication The relatively specialized lifestyle of a group of people.Includes:values, beliefs, ways of behaving and communicating, artifacts
4Cultural and other influences UNIVERSAL LEVEL: characteristics that are shared by all humans (biological traits)INDIVIDUAL LEVEL: characteristics that are unique to a particular individual.COLLECTIVE LEVEL: certain values, attitudes, and, consequently, behavior, are shared with other members of a group (culture, subculture)
5Acquiring cultureEnculturation: learning culture into which you were bornAcculturation: learning a new culture
6Boundaries of cultures Not all members of a culture are alike; each member has a unique view of their culture.The differences are due, at least in part, to the existence of subcultures: groups within a culture whose members share many of the values of the culture but also have some values that differ from the larger culture.
8Degrees of Cultural Significance Encounters fit along a spectrum of “interculturalness”Least intercultural: Cultural differences mean littleMost intercultural: Differences, backgrounds, beliefs noteworthy“Salience”: The weight we attach to a particular person or phenomenon.
10American cultureLiberty: the perception that a minimum of limitations should be preservedSupport for free enterpriseIndividual responsibility.Equality: Equal opportunity, but not equal outcomes.Democracy: Government accountable to the people.Civic duty: People should be involved in community and civic affairs.Interpersonal Trust. Confident expectation of reliable and truthful cooperation.
11Cultural traits Power Distance Individualism / Collectivism Uncertainty AvoidanceAchievementHigh- and Low-Context cultures
12Individualism / Collectivism The extent to which individuals are expected to look after themselves, as opposed to strong social and family ties that offer unconditional support and protection in exchange for loyalty.Individualistic societies are characterized by open choices, while collectivistic societies are characterized by prescribed choices.
13Power distanceThe extent to which the less powerful expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.Power is distributed by the role ones play. Mother - child, Boss - subordinate, Teacher - student.High Power distance usually indicates authoritarian structures in governments.Low Power distance indicates more open societies. Members are not punished for challenging authority.
14Uncertainty Avoidance/ Tolerance for Ambiguity The extent to which uncertain or unknown situations are perceived as threatening.High Uncertainty avoidance indicates a strong desire for stable and predictable relationships.Often, not to lose security, people agree to conform. They agree to any form of social rules for the sake of security and peace.
15Achievement versus Nurturing (Masculine/Feminine) It measures the extent to which assertiveness, ambition, and achievement dominate in particular culture.Societies characterized by achievement orientation judge individuals by their accomplishments, while societies with ascriptive values measure individuals by their group membership.
16Interpersonal Trust.Trust can be defined as non opportunistic behavior.A person whom we trust will not take advantage of a situation to promote his own interest
17High- Versus Low-Context Anthropologist Edward T. Hall:Low-context cultureLanguage expresses thoughts, feelings, and ideas as directly as possible.High-context cultureRelies heavily on subtle, often nonverbal cues to maintain social harmony
18Low‑ and High‑Context Communication High‑context messages Message senders expect other people to know what is on their mind and they are not specific when they talk; the listener is supposed to figure out what is happening.High‑context communication tends to be indirect and vague.
19Low‑ and High‑Context Communication Low‑context messagesThey are characterized by the majority of the information being in the explicit code.Message senders are expected to express themselves clearly and directly, limiting the need for the listener to figure out what is happening.
20Low‑ and High‑Context Communication Low‑ and high‑context messages occur in both individualistic and collectivistic cultures, butlow‑context messages predominate in individualistic cultures andhigh‑context messages predominate in collectivistic cultures.
21Verbal Communication Styles Three important differences:Directness and indirectnessElaborateness and succinctnessFormality and informality
22Nonverbal CodesPeople of all cultures convey messages through facial expression and gesture.What similarities or differences in facial expression interpretations exist between cultures? Gestures?What cultures have larger “personal space” zones?How do personal space variances create difficult communication situations?
23Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Motivation and Attitude / DesireTolerance for ambiguity / Living with uncertaintyOpen-mindednessBeware of ethnocentrismBeware of prejudiceBeware of stereotypingKnowledge and skillMindfulnessPassive observation / Active strategiesUse appropriate self-disclosure