# Energy, Heat and Heat Transfer Earth Science Intro Unit.

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Energy, Heat and Heat Transfer Earth Science Intro Unit

What is Energy? Energy 1. Is the ability to cause change 2. Two general forms of energy are a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy I will be able to describe Energy and the two types of energy.

What is Potential Energy? Potential Energy 1. Energy at rest 2. Stored energy I will be able to describe Energy and the two types of energy.

What is Potential Energy? Potential Energy – Examples: A ball held above the ground has potential energy because the force of gravity can pull it down. Stretching a rubber band increases its potential energy because of its condition. I will be able to describe Energy and the two types of energy.

What is Kinetic Energy? Kinetic Energy 1.Is the energy of an object that is due to motion 2.All moving objects have kinetic energy 3.The faster the particles move the more kinetic energy they have I will be able to describe Energy and the two types of energy.

How does temperature relate to kinetic energy? Temperature Measure of the average kinetic energy of all particles. I will be able to define and describe temperature, thermal energy and heat.

How does temperature relate to kinetic energy? Temperature 1.Cooler Liquids a.Move Slower a.Lower Temperature 2.Warmer Liquids a.Move faster a.Higher Temperature I will be able to define and describe temperature, thermal energy and heat.

How is Temperature Measured? Thermometer An instrument used to measure temperature. Units: 1.Celsius ( ˚ C) 2. Fahrenheit ( ˚ F) I will be able to define and describe temperature, thermal energy and heat.

What are the Temperature Scales?? Most commonly used I will be able to define and describe temperature, thermal energy and heat. Used mostly in the US Used by physics Kelvin not degrees Lowest temp = absolute zero

What is Thermal Energy? Thermal Energy Total kinetic energy of all particles in a substance. I will be able to define and describe temperature, thermal energy and heat.

How is Temperature different from Thermal Energy? Difference? – Temperature = average kinetic energy. – Thermal Energy = total energy – Example: A lake and glass of water can have the same temperature. – A lake has more molecules so it has more thermal energy. I will be able to define and describe temperature, thermal energy and heat.

What is Heat? Heat Is the energy transferred from an object of a higher temperature to an object of a lower temperature. 1. Always flows from hot to cold or more energy to less energy 2.. Three ways it is transferred I will be able to define and describe temperature, thermal energy and heat. Hot to Cold

How can heat affect the state of matter? Heat / State of Matter 1. State of a substance depends on the speed of the particles. 2. Adding / removing heat can result in a change of state. Example: Adding heat to ice cube changes it from a solid to a liquid I will be able to define and describe temperature, thermal energy and heat.

How can heat be transferred? Energy Transfer Stations I will be able to compare and contrast the three types of energy transfers.

How can heat be transferred? Radiation - transfer of energy as heat by electromagnetic waves. Examples: 1.Radio waves 3. infrared waves 4. visible light 5. ultraviolet waves 6. x-rays 7. gamma rays 1.Can travel through empty space. 2.Cannot see it, but feel it as heat (infrared) Examples: 1.Sunlight 2.Open Fire 3.Living things I will be able to compare and contrast the three types of energy transfers.

How can heat be transferred? Conduction - transfer of energy as heat by direct contact. 1.Occurs when objects of different temperatures touch each other. 2.Can occur with a single object. Energy is transferred from the warmer part to the cooler part. I will be able to compare and contrast the three types of energy transfers.

How can heat be transferred? Convection - transfer of energy as heat by the movement of a liquid or gas. 1.Convection occurs when a cooler (denser) substance sinks and a warmer (less dense) substance rises. 2.Creates a convection current. 3. Warm rises (less dense) and cool sinks (more dense) I will be able to compare and contrast the three types of energy transfers.

How a Convection Current Works? – Warmer Fluids Particles move faster. Particles spread out Density becomes less and fluid rises. I will be able to explain how convection transfers heat energy. – Cooler fluids Particles move slower Particles come together Density increases, fluid sinks.

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