# Energy Transfer.  One of the simplest ways energy is transferred is as heat.  Though energy has many different forms, all energy is measured in units.

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Energy Transfer

 One of the simplest ways energy is transferred is as heat.  Though energy has many different forms, all energy is measured in units called joules (J).  The amount of energy transferred from one sample MUST be equal to the amount of energy received by a second sample.  Therefore, the total energy of the two samples remains exactly the same.

 When samples of different temperatures are in contact, energy is transferred from the sample that has the higher temperature to the sample that has the lower temperature.  Temperature – a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object.

 The temperature of a sample increases as the sample absorbs energy.  The temperature of a sample depends on the average kinetic energy of the sample’s particles.  The higher the temp of a sample is, the __________ the particles move.

 The temperature increase of a sample also depends on the mass of the sample.  For example, a beaker with 100 mL of liquid in it will increase in temperature at about _______ the rate as a sample with only 50 mL of the same liquid.

 Temperature –  Heat – The energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures.  Temp is an intensive property, which means that the temperature of a sample does not depend on the amount of the sample.  Heat is an ___________ property, which means that the amount of energy transferred as heat in a sample DOES depend on the amount.

 Water in a glass vs. water in a pitcher:  They can have the SAME temperature  The water in the pitcher can transfer MORE energy as heat to another sample because the water in the pitcher has MORE particles that the water in the glass.

 All matter contains energy.  Measuring the total amount of energy present in a sample of matter is impossible, but changes in energy content can be determined.  These changes can be determined by measuring the energy that enters or leaves the sample of matter.  Enthalpy, which is represented by the symbol H, is the total energy content of a sample.

 Enthalpy – the sum of the internal energy of a system plus the product of the system's volume multiplied by the pressure that the system exerts on its surroundings.  If pressure remains constant, the enthalpy increase of a sample of matter equals the energy as heat that is received.

 Think about hot chocolate cooling:  As kinetic energy decreases, enthalpy decreases  This decrease is observed as a temperature decrease.

 When a substance receives energy in the form of heat, its enthalpy increases and the kinetic energy of the particles that make up the substance increases.  The direction in which any particle moves is not related to the direction in which its neighboring particles move.  The motions of these particles are RANDOM.

 The Specific Heat Capacity of a pure substance is the energy as heat needed to increase the temp of 1 gram of the substance by 1 K.  Specific heat capacity has the symbol C p and the unit J/K*mol (J*k -1 mol -1 )  Specific heat capacity is accurately measured only if no other process, such as a chemical reaction, occurs.

C p = q / m Δ T Or…. (algebraically manipulating it to solve for “q”) q = mC p Δ T Heat = (amt in grams)(molar heat cap)(change in temp)

Determine the energy as heat needed to increase the temperature of 10.0 grams of mercury by 27.5 K. The value for C p for Hg is 27.8 J/g*K.

A 14.5 gram sample of octane (C 8 H 18 ) absorbed 3.5x10 3 J of energy. Calculate the temperature increase of octane if the molar heat capacity of octane is 254.0 J/g*K.

 A 15.75-g piece of iron absorbs 1086.75 joules of heat energy, and its temperature changes from 25°C to 175°C. Calculate the specific heat capacity of iron.

 How many joules of heat are needed to raise the temperature of 10.0 g of aluminum from 22°C to 55°C, if the specific heat of aluminum is 0.90 J/g°C?

 Calculate the specific heat capacity of a piece of wood if 1500.0 g of the wood absorbs 67,500 joules of heat, and its temperature changes from 32°C to 57°C.

Vocab Sheet and Section 1: Energy Transfer worksheet is due Friday!

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