Presentation on theme: "The Constitutional Convention"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Constitutional Convention Building a New NationThe Constitutional Convention
2 Class ObjectivesIdentify the key leaders at the Constitutional ConventionSummarize the key issues and their resolution at the Constitutional ConventionCompare the Virginia and New Jersey PlansExplain the Great CompromiseDefine the 3/5th CompromiseExplain the compromise on commerce & the slave tradeDescribe the form of government established by the ConstitutionDescribe the debate over ratification of the Constitution, and the views of the opposing sides.Explain the purpose of the Bill of Rights, and identify the documents that informed it.
3 Constitutional Convention During the Constitutional Era, the Founding Fathers made two attempts to establish a workable government based on republican principlesThe failure of the Articles of Confederation led to a new Constitutional ConventionDuring the fall of 1787 Congressman convened in Philadelphia to address the issues of the Articles of Confederation . They ultimately created a new form of government.Do you think it was easy?????
4 Activity Film Clip – The Constitutional Convention, 1787 Note the roles of key leaders at the Convention:George Washington:President (chairman) of the ConventionQuiet but very respected; kept tempers coolJames Madison: “The Father of the Constitution”Author of the Virginia Plan (three branches of govt)Kept detailed notes! Brilliant!Would later author the Bill of RightsConstitutional CompromisesHandouts A, B, C – what do you think?What actually happened?
5 Constitutional Convention – Conflicts and Compromises Great CompromiseHow should states be represented in the govt?Virginia Plan:3 separate branches: Exec,Leg,JudicialBicameral (2 houses) legislature, House of Representatives & SenateRepresentation based on population size in both housesMore people more repsBig states liked this!New Jersey Plan:3 separate branches: Exec,Leg,JudicialUnicameral (1 house) legislature, House of Representatives onlyEqual representation for all states, like in the Articles of Con.One state one voteSmall states liked this!Bicameral legislature with 2 houses: House of Representatives & SenateRepresentation based on pop. in House of RepsEqual representation in Senate (each State gets two Senators)Also called Connecticut CompromiseNorthern States:Slaves should NOT be counted for representation, but they SHOULD be counted for taxation.This position was best for the non-slavery states (mostly northern and smaller).Southern States:Slaves SHOULD be counted for representation, but they should NOT be counted for taxation.This position was best for the slave-holding states (mostly southern with large #’s of slaves).Three-Fifths (3/5th) CompromiseHow should population be counted for representation and taxation?Count some of the slaves. For every 5 slaves, 3 would be counted for population and taxation.Northern StatesWanted government to regulate business, to help northern industrySome northerners wanted the govt to end the slave trade, but all wanted to protect their own property rightsMost northerners did not want to have to return escaped slaves to ownersSlave Trade & Commerce CompromiseShould the govt regulate business, including the slave trade?Southern States:Did not want government to regulate business, because it would not help southern agricultureWere afraid that government would end the slave tradeFelt that northerners must return escaped slaves (property) to ownersGovt COULD regulate business, but promised not to end the slave trade for 20 years.Escaped slaves would be returned to owners.
6 Basic Principles of the Constitution Federal Govt is the Supreme Law of the Land, but States have a lot of power to govern themselvesPopular Sovereignty (Rule by the people)Power comes from the people’s consentLimited GovernmentLimited the powers of the Government to those powers in the Constitution
7 Basic Principles of the Constitution Separation of PowersThree branches of governmentLegislative: Congress (makes the law)Senate and House of RepresentativesExecutive: President (enforces the law)Judicial: Supreme Court (interprets the law)Checks and BalancesEach branch has some control over the othersNo branch can get too powerful
9 Basic Principles of the Constitution Judicial ReviewThe courts (judicial branch) can declare laws unconstitutionalThis was added a few years later; not in the Constitution!FederalismPower is shared between the national government and the states
12 Check for Understanding What was the location of the Constitutional Convention?Who presided over the convention as chairman…why was he chosen?What were the main issues discussed at the convention?What did Great Compromise do?What are the basic principles of the Constitution?
14 The Ratification Debate Ratify = ApproveRead the article Ratification of the Constitution and answer the questions.
15 RatificationBefore the Constitution can be put into practice, it must be ratified, or approved by the states.Each state sets up a convention to approve or reject the ConstitutionNine states must accept the Constitution for it to be ratifiedDebate over Constitution -- (Federalists and Anti-federalists) – What were their arguments?
16 FEDERALISTS ANTI-FEDERALISTS FOR Ratification: Strong central government was good for solving national issues:Order and national securityEconomic developmentCommerce between statesDid NOT need a Bill of Rights, b/c the Constitution already protected citizens.Separation of powers, checks & balances, and federalism protected states and citizens from a govt that was toopowerfulMajor Federalists:Alexander Hamilton*, James Madison*, John Jay*, George Washington*wrote Federalist Papers to support ratificationAGAINST Ratification:Feared that a strong central government would take away rights of citizens and states, and would favor the rich and powerfulWANTED a Bill of Rights to protect individuals from power of govt. Refused to ratify w/o it (NY & VA)Major Anti-Federalists*:Patrick Henry, George Mason* James Madison eventually agreed with them, and wrote the Bill of Rights!
17 The Bill of RightsAfter the Federalists promise to add a Bill of Rights, states begin to ratify the Constitution. (Delaware is 1st)Bill of Rights is written by James Madison (a Federalist)Heavily influenced by two Virginia documents:The Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) by George MasonThe Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom (1786) by Thomas Jefferson
18 ActivityReviewThe VA Declaration of Rights and the VA Statute of Religious FreedomThe Bill of RightsHow did these two documents influence the Bill of Rights and other founding principles of the United States?