Presentation on theme: "Mendel’s Theory Section 8-2 Ag Biology. Before Mendel’s Experiments People thought that offspring were a blend of the parents characteristics. Example."— Presentation transcript:
Before Mendel’s Experiments People thought that offspring were a blend of the parents characteristics. Example Cross a short plant and a tall plant to produce a medium plant in height.
Mendel’s Hypotheses Mendel developed four hypotheses from his experiments that later became the Mendelian theory of heredity.
Hypothesis #1 For each inherited trait, an individual has two copies of the gene- one from each parent.
Hypothesis #2 There are alternative versions of genes. Different versions of a gene are called alleles.
Hypothesis #3 When two different alleles occur together, one of them is expressed, while the other may have no observable effect on the organism’s appearance. Expressed form of the trait is dominant. Dominant alleles are represented by capital letters. Not expressed traits when a dominant form is present are called recessive. Recessive alleles are represented by lower case letters.
Hypothesis #4 When gametes are formed, the alleles for each gene in an individual separate independently of one another. Gametes only carry one allele for each inherited trait. When gametes unite during fertilization, each gamete contributes one allele.
Terminology Homozygous- when an individual has the two alleles of a particular gene that are the same RR rr Heterozygous- when an individual has different alleles of a particular gene Rr
Terminology Genotype- the set of alleles an individual has Phenotype- the physical appearance of a trait; what is physically expressed
Laws of Heredity During meiosis (gamete production), Alleles for a trait separate (Law of segregation) The inheritance of one trait does not influence the inheritance of different trait. (Law of Independent Assortment)