3 Refraction Bending of light when it travels from one medium to another Speed of light differs in different mediums:Vacuum = 3.0 x 108 m/sAir ~ VacuumWater = 2.26 x 108 m/sAcrylic = 1.76 x 108 m/s
4 Refraction Rules of Refraction: Incident ray, refracted ray and normal all lie on the same planeLight bends TOWARDS the normal when speed of light in 1st medium > 2nd medium (i.e. Slows down)Light bends AWAY from the normal when the speed of light in 1st medium < 2nd medium (ie. Speed up)
5 Refraction Refracted Ray Normal Line Incident Ray <i If SLOWING down when entering another medium bend TOWARDS the normalNormal LineIncident Ray<iMedium A (Faster)Medium B (Slower)<RRefracted Ray
6 Refraction Normal Line Incident Ray <i <R Refracted Ray If SPEEDING UP when entering another medium bend AWAY from the normalNormal LineIncident Ray<iMedium A (Slower)Medium B (Faster)<RRefracted Ray
9 Partial Refraction & Reflection Refraction is often accompanied by reflection = partial refraction & reflection Ex: Transparent window Silvered two-way mirror: Ex: mirrored sun glasses, Glasses on buildings Here most lights are reflected, while few are refracted
10 Calculating Index of Refraction (n) If ray of light is going from vacuum (or air) to a slower medium, then…. We can use the angles given to calculate index of refraction using the formula sin <i .= n sin <R where n = Index of Refraction
11 n = sin 480 sin 300 n = 0.743 0.5 n = 1.49 Normal Line <i = 48o Example: A light ray travelling from air into acrylic has an angle of incidence of The angle of refraction is determined to be What is the index of refraction of acrylic?Normal LineIncident Ray<i = 48oAir (Faster)Acrylic(Slower)n = sin 480sin 300n = 0.7430.5n = 1.49<R = 30oRefracted Ray
12 Calculating Index of Refraction (n) Another way to calculate n is by using the ratio between the speed of light in vacuum (c) and the speed of light in the medium (v)n = c . Where c = 3.00 x 108 m/svNB: Index of refraction for air is almost the same as for vacuum. For our calculation purposes they are the same.
13 Calculating Index of Refraction (n) Example 1:Speed of light in air is 3.00 x 108 m/s. Speed of light in salt is 1.96 x 108 m/s. Light enters from air to salt. Which way does the light bend? What is the index of refraction?Answer:Light travels from air (faster) to salt (slower), thus refracted ray will bend TOWARDS the normal.Index of refraction (n) = c = 3.00 x 108 m/s = 1.53v x 108 m/s
14 Calculating Index of Refraction (n) Example 2:Index of refraction of quartz is If the angle of incident ray from air is 600, what is the angle of refracted ray in quartz?
16 Recall that refraction is often accompanied by reflection = Partial Refraction & Reflection Normal LineAir (FASTER)Water (SLOWER)Refracted rayReflected rayIncident ray
17 Q: What happens when we keep increasing the angle of incidence? Normal LineAir (FASTER)Water (SLOWER)Refracted raysReflected raysIncident raysCritical angle = when <R is equal to 900
18 Total Internal Reflection Air (FASTER) Water (SLOWER)Occurs when <i is GREATER than critical angle.NO light is being refracted.
19 Total Internal Reflection ONLY occurs under 2 conditions:1. Light is travelling more slowly in 1st medium than in 2nd medium (going from SLOWER to FASTER)2. Angle of incidence is GREATER than critical angle
20 Total Internal Reflection Critical angle is a physical property of mediumHigh index of refraction means a very small critical angle.Example:Diamond n = 2.42 critical angle = 24.40Any light coming in at angle greater than will be internally reflected “sparkling” effects
23 To draw diagram to show this phenomena: Apparent DepthTo draw diagram to show this phenomena:Draw the 2 different mediums & eyeDraw the object in slower mediumAIRWATER
24 4. EXTEND the refracted ray BACKWARDS Apparent Depth3. Draw an incident ray coming from a point on the object, the normal line and the refracted ray.4. EXTEND the refracted ray BACKWARDSAIRWATER
25 6. EXTEND the refracted ray BACKWARDS Apparent Depth5. Draw a second incident ray from the same point, but at different angle, show the new normal line and refracted ray.6. EXTEND the refracted ray BACKWARDSAIRWATER
26 7. Where the two dashed lines meet is where your image will be. Apparent Depth7. Where the two dashed lines meet is where your image will be.AIRWATER
27 Water on pavement - Mirage The mirage is a virtual image of the sky. n of cold air > n of warm air Light bends AWAY from normal as it goes from cold to warmer air
28 Water on pavement - Mirage Eventually once you reached the lowest (and hottest) air layer, total internal reflection occurs Light ray now travels UP through the layers.
29 Water on pavement - Mirage Refracted ray reaches your eyes Your brain automatically extends the ray BACKWARDS. Image of the sky appears to come from the ground ahead of you