Presentation on theme: "African Americans become full citizens. 13 th Amendment – ended slavery. 14 th Amendment – forbid states from denying Constitutional rights to any citizens."— Presentation transcript:
African Americans become full citizens. 13 th Amendment – ended slavery. 14 th Amendment – forbid states from denying Constitutional rights to any citizens. 15 th Amendment – the right to vote cannot be denied on the basis of race. Do African Americans then live free from discrimination, segregation and racism?
Racism Continues States deny AA the right to vote. Literacy tests (ex.) Poll taxes Grandfather clauses Legal Segregation Jim Crow laws – state and local laws that separate blacks and whites in public settings.
Is all this legal? Plessy v. Ferguson – 1896 Homer Plessy sits in the “white” car on a New Orleans train. He is arrested for violating a city segregation ordinance. His appeal reaches the Supreme Court. The court rules in favor of the “separate but equal” doctrine. They argue that separate facility do not make one race feel inferior.
Violence Any challenges to Jim Crow are generally met with violent measures. Lynching – illegal “executions” used to send a message to the black community. Over 1400 in southern states between 1882-1892
One Solution: Move North Southern Segregation De Jure Segregation that is enforce by law. Examples: Jim Crow, hiring practices, real estate rules. Northern Segregation De Facto Segregation by choice, people’s attitudes. Examples: the lunchroom, church membership, living patterns