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ECE 3110: Introduction to Digital Systems Symplifying Products of sums using Karnaugh Maps

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Previous… Simplifying SOP: Draw K-map Find prime implicants Find distinguished 1-cell Determine essential prime implicants if available Select all essential prime implicants and the minimal set of the remaining prime implicants that cover the remaining 1’s.

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How to get minimal sum Load the minterms and maxterms into the K-map by placing the 1’s and 0’s in the appropriate cells. Look for groups of minterms and write the corresponding product terms ( the prime implicants): a- The group size should be a power of 2. b- Find the largest groups of minterms first then find smaller groups of minterms until all groups are found and all 1-cells are covered. Determine the essential prime implicants. Select all essential prime implicants and the minimal set of the remaining prime implicants that cover the remaining 1’s. Its possible to get more than one equally simplified expression if more than one set of the remaining prime implicants contains the same number of minterms.

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Example 2 - Combining (0,2) Product term : X’Z’ - Combining (2,3) Product term : X’Y - Combining (3,7) Product term :YZ X’Z’, X’Y, and YZ are prime implicants X’Z’, YZ are essential prime implicants X’Y is non-essential prime implicant (redundant) because all its minterms are covered in the other essential prime implicants F= X’Z’+X’Y+YZ (complete sum) OR: F = X’Z’+YZ ( the minimal sum of F ) 0 13 2 XY Z X Z 11 01 0001 0 1 7 6 0 1 11 5 4 0 0 10 Y

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Example 3 The prime implicants : - Cells(0,1,2,3) : W’X’ - Cells(0,1,4,5) : W’Y’ - Cells(1,3,5,7) : W’Z - Cells(7,15) : XYZ - Cells(14,15) : WXY The essential prime implicants: - W’X’ - W’Y’ - WXY Cell 7 is not covered by any of the essential prime implicants. Its covered by two non-essential prime implicant. We choose the one with the less number of variables which is W’Z F= W’X’+W’Y’+WXY+W’Z 0 15 4 WX YZ W Z 11 11 0001 00 13 12 0 0 11 9 8 0 0 10 X 3 26 7 11 10 14 15 1 1 10 11 0 0 01 11 10 Y

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eclipse Given two prime implicants P and Q in a reduced map, P is said to eclipse Q if P covers at least all the 1-cells covered by Q. (P…Q). Removing Q because P is at least as good as Q. Work example Figure 4-35, pp.229

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Exercise Row W X Y Z F 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 1 1 0 4 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 1 0 1 1 6 0 1 1 0 1 7 0 1 1 1 0 8 1 0 0 0 1 9 1 0 0 1 1 10 1 0 1 0 0 11 1 0 1 1 0 12 1 1 0 0 1 13 1 1 0 1 1 14 1 1 1 0 1 15 1 1 1 1 0 0 15 4 WX YZ W Z 0001 00 13 12 11 9 8 10 X 3 26 7 14 15 10 11 01 11 10 Y

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Exercise Solution: Essential prime implicants: - cells (0,1,4,5,8,9,12,13) The prodcut term : Y’ - cells (2,6,0,4) The product term : W’Z’ - Cells (4,6,12,14) The product term : XZ’ F=Y’+W’Z’+XZ’ 0 15 4 WX YZ W Z 11 11 0001 00 13 12 1 1 11 9 8 1 1 10 X 3 26 7 00 11 14 15 0 1 10 11 0 0 01 11 10 Y

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Another Example F= The prime implicants: 1- (0,2) X’Z’ 2- (0,4) Y’Z’ 3- (2,3) X’Y 4- (3,7) YZ 5- (4,5) XY’ 6 -(5,7) XZ No essential prime implicant! Two possible minimal sums : 1- Using the prime implicants 1,4,and 5, F= X’Z’+YZ+XY’ 2- Using the prime implicants 2,3,and 6, F= Y’Z’+ X’Y+XZ 0 13 2 XY Z X Z 11 01 0001 0 1 7 6 0 1 11 5 4 1 1 10 Y

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Yet another Example - Cells (5,13,7,15) can be combined to form an essential prime implicant. W & Y change X & Z remain constant, X=1,Z=1 - The product term : XZ - Cells (0,8,2,10) can be combined to form an essential prime implicant. W & Y change Z & X remain constant, X=0, Z=0 - The product term : X’Z’ F= XZ + X’Z’ Note that the corner cells (0,2),(0,8),(8,10),(2,10) can be combined to form the implicants : W’X’Z’, X’Y’Z’, WX’Z’, X’YZ’ but, they are not prime implicants. 0 15 4 WX YZ W Z 10 01 0001 00 13 12 0 1 11 9 8 1 0 10 X 3 26 7 01 10 14 15 1 0 10 11 0 1 01 11 10 Y

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Simplifying the Product of Sums (Principle of Duality: looking on the 0s on a K-map) Two main steps : 1) Combining/Grouping the 0 cells. 2) Writing the sum term for each group. Rules : ( for n-variable function ) 1) The group size must be a power of 2. 2) A set of 2^i cells can be combined if there are ( i ) variables that take all possible combinations within the set and the remaining ( n-i ) variables have the same value within that set. 3) The corresponding sum term for each group contains (n-i) literals: - The variable is complemented if it is 1 in the combined cells - The variable is uncomplemented it it 0 in the combined cells - The variable in not included in the product term if it takes the values 0 and 1 within the combined cells

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Example The prime implicants: - Cells (0,1,8,9) X=0, Y=0 The sum term : X+Y - Cells (8,10,12,14) W=1, Z=0 The sum term : W’+Z The two prime implicants are essential prime implicants and cover all zeros The minimal product of sums : F=(X+Y).(W’+Z) 0 15 4 WX YZ W Z 01 01 0001 00 13 12 0 1 11 9 8 0 0 10 X 3 26 7 11 11 14 15 1 0 10 11 1 0 01 11 10 Y

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Simplifying Products of Sums - Another method F= 1- Complement the function. (F’) 2- Use K-map to get the minimal sum of the complement function (F’). 3- Complement the mininal sum to get the minimal product Example : In the previous example the function is complemented and represented using K-map : - The essential prime implicants are: X’Y’, WZ’ - The minimal Sum : M= XY’+WZ’ - F = (F’)’=M’ = (X’Y’+WZ’)’ = (X+Y).(W’+Z) 0 15 4 WX YZ W Z 10 10 0001 00 13 12 1 0 11 9 8 1 1 10 X 3 26 7 00 00 14 15 0 1 10 11 0 1 01 11 10 Y

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Minimal Product of Sums vs. Minimal Sum of Products : Which representation has lower cost? - In the previous example, the minimal sum is : F =W’X+W’Y+XZ+YZ -The minimal product : F=(X+Y).(W’+Z) - In this case the minimal product implementation is cheaper To find the best realization compare the minimal product and the minimal sum products. 0 15 4 WX YZ W Z 01 01 0001 00 13 12 0 1 11 9 8 0 0 10 X 3 26 7 11 11 14 15 1 0 10 11 1 0 01 11 10 Y

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Dont Care Conditions : In some applications, the Boolean function for certain combinations of the input variables is not specified. The corresponding minterms (maxterms) are called “dont care minterms(maxterms)”. In K-map, the “dont care minterms/maxterms” are represented by “d”. Since the output function for those minterms(maxterms) is not specified, those minterms(maxterms) could be combined with the adjacent 1 cells(0-cells) to get a more simplified sum-of- products (product-of-sums) expression.

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New Rules for circling sets of 1s (Sum-of-products simplification) Allow d’s to be included when circling sets of 1s, to make the sets as large as possible Do NOT circle any sets that contain only d’s. As ususal, cover all 1s, none of 0s.

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New Rules for circling sets of 0s (Product-of-Sums simplification) Allow d’s to be included when circling sets of 0s, to make the sets as large as possible Do NOT circle any sets that contain only d’s. As ususal, cover all 0s, none of 1s.

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Example Build a logic circuit that determines if a decimal digit is >= 5 Solution: The decimal digits(0,1,2,...,9) are represented by 4 bit BCD code. The logic circuit should have 4 input variables and one output. There are 16 different input combinations but only 10 of them are used. The logic function should produce 0 if the number is = 5

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Example - The Truth table The Truth table for the function is specified as follows: Row W X Y Z F 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 1 1 6 0 1 1 0 1 7 0 1 1 1 1 8 1 0 0 0 1 9 1 0 0 1 1 10 1 0 1 0 d 11 1 0 1 1 d 12 1 1 0 0 d 13 1 1 0 1 d 14 1 1 1 0 d 15 1 1 1 1 d

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Example - K-Map The Minmal Sum : Combining the 1 cells only, the minimal sum is: F = WX’Y’+W’XZ+W’XY Combining the dont care minterms with the 1 cells, the minimal sum is : F = W+XZ+XY Exercise : Find the Mininal Product 0 15 4 WX YZ W Z 00 01 0001 00 13 12 d d 11 9 8 1 1 10 X 3 26 7 01 01 14 15 d d 10 11 d d 01 11 10 Y 0 15 4 WX YZ Z 00 01 0001 00 13 12 d d 11 9 8 1 1 10 X 3 26 7 01 01 14 15 d d 10 11 d d 01 11 10 Y

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Exercise solution The Mininal Product F= (W+X).(W+Y+Z) 0 15 4 WX YZ W Z 00 01 0001 00 13 12 d d 11 9 8 1 1 10 X 3 26 7 01 01 14 15 d d 10 11 d d 01 11 10 Y

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Example- Implementation The minimal Sum implementation : F = W+XZ+XY The minimal Product implementation : F= (W+X).(W+Y+Z) W X Y Z F W X Y Z F W X Y Z F

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Next… Timing Hazards Read Chapter 4.5---4.7

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