2 Outline of Presentation Cognitive Load TheoryGoal Free LearningGoal Free Learning in MultimediaConclusion
3 Cognitive Load Theory Supports 2 learning goals : The acquisition of Schema- Memory / Storage Organizer- Reducer of Working Memory LoadAutomization- Movement from Controlled (Conscious) Processing to Automatic Processing
4 Cognitive Load TheoryWorking MemoryCognitive LoadLearning TaskAs Total Cognitive Load increases the burden on Working Memory increases
5 Cognitive Load Theory = Total Cognitive Load Working MemoryLearning TaskIntrinsic Cognitive Load +Extraneous Cognitive Load +Germane Cognitive Load= Total Cognitive Load
6 Cognitive Load Theory Types of Cognitive Load Intrinsic Cognitive LoadElement Interactivity-the extent to which elements of tasks must be learned in relation to the elements’ relation between other elementsLow Interactivity: Elements can be learned independently of other elementsHigh Interactivity: Tasks cannot be learned without simultaneously learning its connections with large numbers of elements-Learner’s degree of task automation effects the number of elements to be learned thereby effecting degree of interactivity
7 Cognitive Load Theory Types of Cognitive Load Intrinsic Cognitive LoadIntrinsic Cognitive LoadElement InteractivityLow ElementInteractivityHigh ElementLearning GrammarLearning Vocabulary
8 Cognitive Load Theory Extraneous Cognitive Load SplitAtten.MeansEndWorkedExamplesGoalFreeEffort required to process poorly designed instruction
9 Cognitive Load Theory Germane Cognitive Load Effort that contributes to the construction of schemas- Worked Examples- Goal Free LearningIncreasing the germane load increases learning, but only when…1) Total cognitive load is within capacity of Working Memory2) Intrinsic Cognitive load (element interactivity) is high
10 The Goal-Free Design MEANS-END GOAL FREE VS. Only problem state held in WMAll Goals & Sub goals held in WMIncreases Germane Cognitive LoadIncreases Extraneous Cognitive Loadie Solve for Xi.e. Calculate as many variables as you canEffective for Problem Solving/ Not learningEffective for Learning/Schema Creation
11 Goal-Free Effect Means-End Problem D 50° B 110° A G X E C F Sub-Goal: Angle DEASub-Goal: Angle DBGB110°AGXECFSolve for XLearners make a higher number of errors on the sub-goal stage, when more elements are in working memory, than in the goal stage.
12 Goal-Free Effect Goal Free Problem D 50° B 110° A G E C F Solve for as many angles as you canSince no sub-goals, only goals, the number of the elements simultaneously in WM is limited. Learners make less errors during goal-free problem solving due to the minimized element interactivity.
13 Examples of Goal Free Exercises Illuminations:Bobby BearTurtle PondFactor Game