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TQM Principles and Practices Mohd Fathullah Ghazali.

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1 TQM Principles and Practices Mohd Fathullah Ghazali

2 Topics covered  Continuous improvement,  Employee empowerment,  Leadership and change  Teamwork in industrial practices.

3 Continuous Improvement (Kaizen)  It is a fundamental of Total Quality  “Competing in a global marketplace is like running in an Olympics” –– must keep running and last year record is to be broken this year. –Athletes who don’t improve continually will not remain long in winner’s circle –Same goes to the company

4 Essential improvement activities  Quality expert recommends 5 activities as a crucial to continuous improvement. There are in Figure 19-1;

5 1.Maintain communication. –It is important to share information before, during and after attempting to make improvements. 2.Correct obvious problems –Should be corrected immediately. 3.Look upstream –Look for causes, not symptoms. 4.Document problems and progress –Take time to write it down. It is uncommon to continue solving the same problem over and over again. 5.Monitor changes –Solution may solved or partially solved. For this reason, it is important to monitor changes that have been made. –Make sure the pride of ownership does not interfere the objective of monitoring the performance.

6 Identification of improvement needs  Every organization has limited resources  Therefore, they should be managed and optimized to give most benefit.  There are 4 strategies for identifying improvement needs –Apply multivoting (Brainstorming to develop a list of potential improvement project) –Identify customer needs –Study the use of time. –Localize problems (pinpoint specifically where and when it happens)

7 Standard Process Improvement Strategies Describe the process Standardize the process Eliminate errors the process Simplify the process Reduce sources of variation Bring the process under SPC Improve the design the process

8 Kaizen  Kaizen strategy is the most important concept in Japanese Management.  Kaizen means ‘on-going improvement involving everyone.  Involve top management, managers and workers.

9 Elements of Kaizen  Figure 19-4

10 Kaizen implementation tools  Some additional tools instead of quality tools explained in this course.  Kaizen Tools are; 1.Kaizen checklist 2.Kaizen Five-Step plan (5S) 3.Five W’s and One H 4.Five-M checklist

11 Kaizen Checklist  Using checklist that focuses attention of employees on those factors that are most likely in need of improvement. –E.g; work methods, facilities, software tools etc

12  Figure 19-5

13 Kaizen 5 step plan (5S)  Japanese approach to implement kaizen  Using posters on the walls with the word –Seiri (Straighten up) –Seiton (Put things in order) –Seiso (Clean up) –Seiketsu (Personal cleanliness) –Shitsuke (Discipline)

14 Five W’s and One H WHOWHATWHEREWHENWHYHOW

15

16  Using this tool encourages employees to look at a process and ask questions; –Who is doing it? –Who should do it? –What should be done? –What is being done? –Where is it being done? –Where should it be done? –Why is it being done? –Why is it that way? –When is it being done? –When should it be done? –How it is being done? –How should it be done?

17 Five-M checklist Man (Operator) Machine Material Methods Measurement

18 Employee empowerment

19  Empowerment means engaging employees in thinking processes of an organization in ways that matter.  Also means having input that is heard and used – giving ownership of the job.

20 Employee empowerment Rationale;  Best way to increase creative thinking and initiative on the part of employees.  Can be an outstanding motivator Issues;  Resistance to change

21 Employee empowerment  Implementation of employee empowerment has 4 steps; 1.Creating a supportive environments 2.Targeting and overcoming 3.Putting the vehicles in place (Vehicles = brainstorming, quality circles, suggestion boxes etc) 4.Assessing, adjusting and improving

22 Leadership and change

23  Leadership is the ability to inspire people to make a total, willing, and voluntary commitment to accomplishing or exceeding organizational goals.  What leaders must be able to do; –Overcome resistance to change. –Broker inside and outside organizations

24 Leadership for Quality  Principles of Leadership for Quality 1.Customer Focus  Primary organizational goal is to meet or exceed customer expectations. 2.Obsession with quality  Obsession with quality must be instilled by leaders in an organization. Means – every employee can aggressively pursue quality. 3.Recognizing the structure of work  When the optimum structure is in place, work process can be analyzed in order to improve them. 4.Freedom through Control (See Chapter 5) 5.Unity of Purpose  All employees will commit towards one target. 6.Looking for faults in systems  Deming and Juran said “85% of faults come from management, only 15% from the employees” 7.Teamwork  A team of people working together can out-perform a group of individuals.

25  Leadership Styles –Autocratic Leadership  Also called Dictatorial Leadership –Democratic Leadership  Also called consultive or consensus leadership –Participative leadership  Also known as Non-directive leadership  Exert little control on decision making process  Allow team members to develop solutions –Goal-oriented Leadership  Result-based leadership  Any other unrelated to specific goals is minimized. –Situational leadership  Also called contingency leadership  Manager decides to take any of the above style, depending on the situation.  Based on short term concern.

26 Teamwork  What is a Team? –A group of people with common, collective goal  Rationale for Teams; –2 or more heads are better than one –The whole (1 team) is better than the sum of individual parts –Teamwork promotes better communication.

27 Teamwork Teams are no to be bossed, they need to be coached! Coaches are usually mentors, promote respect among team members Employees will not always work well together as a team.

28 TQ


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