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Kingdoms & Domains Chapter 18-3

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1 Kingdoms & Domains Chapter 18-3 http://analyzer.depaul.edu/astrobiology/kingdoms.jpg

2 As we discovered more about the natural world… not all organisms fit into Linnaeus’s 2 kingdoms (_____ or _____) Ex: _________ _____ Images from: http://www.leighday.co.uk/upload/public/docImages/6/Listeria%20bacteria.jpg http://danny.oz.au/travel/iceland/p/3571-fungi.jpg plantanimal bacteria fungi

3 http://analyzer.depaul.edu/astrobiology/kingdoms.jpg _______________________ (BACTERIA) FIVE ORIGINAL KINGDOMS

4 EubacteriaArchaebacteriaProtistaPlantaeFungiAnimalia 6 KINGDOMS used today As we learned more about bacteria, the __________ kingdom was split into TWO distinct kingdoms ___________ & ______________ Eubacteria Archaebacteria MONERA

5 THREE-DOMAIN system Molecular analyses have given rise to a ___________ _______ now recognized = _______ DOMAIN new taxonomic category

6 Domains are larger than Kingdoms and are based on the kind of ____________ an organism has. EubacteriaArchaebacteriaProtistaPlantaeFungiAnimalia Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Ribosomal RNA

7 Kidspiration by Riedell 6 Kingdom System PlantaeFungiProtista EubacteriaArchaebacteria Animalia

8 Cell without a nucleus = ____________ (Includes bacteria) Cell with a nucleus and organelles surrounded by membranes = _________________ (includes plants and animals) Organism that can make its own food using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis = ______________ Organism that gets food energy from consuming other organisms = _____________ REMEMBER PROKARYOTE EUKARYOTE AUTOTROPH HETEROTROPH

9 A ONE-CELLED organism = _____________________ Organism made of many cells = ______________ Polysaccharide made by joining glucose molecules together which makes plants sturdy = _________________ REMEMBER UNICELLULAR MULTICELLULAR CELLULOSE http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/Biol115/Wyatt/default.htm

10 DOMAIN: BACTERIA KINGDOM: EUBACTERIA _______________________ ______________________ Have cell walls with ________________ Can be ____________ or ______________ EXAMPLES: _____________________ PROKARYOTES PEPTIDOGLYCAN UNICELLULAR AUTOTROPHS HETEROTROPHS E. coli, Streptococcus http://chemiris.chem.binghamton.edu/ZHONG/research/bacteria3.jpg

11 Polymer made of sugars and amino acids found outside the cell membrane in the cell wall in some bacteria = ______________ PEPTIDOGLYCAN http://www.scq.ubc.ca/?p=481

12 _________________ Have cell walls _________ peptidoglycan Can be ___________ or ______________ EXAMPLES: _____________________ LIVE IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS like volcanic hot springs, brine pools, low oxygen DOMAIN: ARCHAEA KINGDOM: ARCHAEBACTERIA PROKARYOTES WITHOUT UNICELLULAR AUTOTROPHS HETEROTROPHS Halophiles; thermophiles;

13 Organisms that can live in HIGH temperature environments = ________________ Organisms that can live in high salt environments = ______________ HALOPHILES THERMOPHILES http://www.teara.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/737B7002-C31D-418D-84C5-D0E68ED87BBB/134228/hero6483.jpg http://web0.greatbasin.net/~wigand/petespaleo/Columbus%20Salt%20Marsh.jpg

14 DOMAIN: EUKARYA KINGDOM: PLANTAE _______________________ ______________________ Have cell walls with ________________ and _____________ _________________ EXAMPLES: _____________________ EUKARYOTES CELLULOSE MULTICELLULAR AUTOTROPHS Mosses, ferns, trees, flowering plants http://www.russianflora.com/store/images/product/custom_green_plant_35.jpg CHLOROPLASTS

15 DOMAIN: EUKARYA KINGDOM: ANIMALIA _______________________ _____________________ ________________ or _______________ __________________ EXAMPLES: _____________________ EUKARYOTES NO CELL WALLS CHLOROPLASTS MULTICELLULAR HETEROTROPHS Worms, insects, fish, birds, mammals, humans http://www.millan.net

16 DOMAIN: EUKARYA KINGDOM: FUNGI _______________________ ______________________ Have cell walls with ________________ _______________ __________________________________ _______________________ EXAMPLES: _____________________ EUKARYOTES CHITIN Most MULTICELLULAR; few UNICELLULAR HETEROTROPHS- absorb nutrients from decaying organic matter Mushrooms, yeast http://www.ontarionature.org/home/images/mushrooms.jpg

17 DOMAIN: EUKARYA KINGDOM: PROTISTA _______________________ ______________________ Some have cell walls with ________________ ____________________ Can be _____________ or _____________ EXAMPLES: _____________________ EUKARYOTES CELLULOSE Most UNICELLULAR; some colonial/multi Some have chloroplasts AUTOTROPHS HETEROTROPHS http://www.ravelgrane.com/pix/proj/draco/paramecium-nahrung.gif Amoeba; Paramecium; Giant kelp; slime mold

18 Go to Section: DOMAIN KINGDOM CELL TYPE CELL STRUCTURES NUMBER OF CELLS MODE OF NUTRITION EXAMPLES Bacteria ____________ Prokaryote Cell walls with peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryote Cell walls without peptidoglycan _____________ Autotroph or heterotroph Methanogens, halophiles Protista Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular_____________ Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Fungi Eukaryote___________ Most multicellular; some unicellular Heterotroph Mushrooms, yeasts Plantae Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts ___________ Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Animalia ____________ No cell walls or chloroplasts ____________ Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals Eukarya Classification of Living Things Section 18-3 Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of Kingdoms and Domains Eubacteria Unicellular Autotroph or Heterotroph Cell walls of chitin Multicellular Autotroph Eukaryote Multicellular Heterotroph

19 Go to Section: Kingdoms Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia DOMAIN EUKARYA DOMAIN ARCHAEA DOMAIN BACTERIA Section 18-3 Figure 18-13 Cladogram of Six Kingdoms and Three Domains

20 SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells. LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things

21 SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.L.1.2. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationship of major taxa. (APPLICATION) Kingdoms Examples: animals, plants, fungi, protista, monera Phyla Examples: invertebrates, vertebrates, divisions of plants LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things

22 Core High School Life Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: predict the function of a given structure; construct an original dichotomous key. High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: classify organisms using a dichotomous key. describe the relationship between structure and function High school students performing at the BASIC level recognize that different structures perform different functions; identify DNA as the structure that carries the genetic code Know the purpose of a dichotomous key

23 SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.L.1.5A. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationships of domains. (SYNTHESIS) Examples: eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes


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