Presentation on theme: "Civilization A complex culture with five characteristics:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Civilization A complex culture with five characteristics: Advanced citiesSpecialized workersComplex institutionsRecord keepingAdvanced technology
2 Advanced CitiesA city is more than a large group of people living together. The size of the population alone does NOT distinguish a village from a city.The key difference between a village and a city is a center of trade.In ancient cities, farmers, merchants, and traders brought goods to markets in the city.
3 Specialized WorkersSpecialization- The developments of skills in a specific kind of job.As cities grew, so did needs for more specialized workersTradersGovernment officialsPriestsSome city dwellers became artisans.Artisans: Skilled workers who make goods by handExamples: metal tools, weapons, pottery
4 Complex Institutions Government, religion, and economy Institution: A long lasting pattern of organization in a community.Growing populations made complex institutions necessaryChurches mainly governed ancient citiesAncient economies began with bartering
5 Record KeepingAs government, religion, and the economy became more complex (complex what?), people recognized the need to keep records.Earliest forms cave drawingsSystems of writing became necessary because of early forms of taxes and keeping track of a calendar.
6 Improved TechnologyNew tools and technologies are always needed to solve problems that emerge when large groups of people live together.Early example Early farmers harnessed larger animals for agricultural needs
7 Before Civilizations… Men and women of the stone age were NomadsNomads- Highly mobile people who moved from place to place searching for new sources of food.Nomads whose food supplies depended on hunting animals and collecting plant foods were called Hunter-Gatherers.
8 The Neolithic Revolution Either an accidental or an experiment that worked!Gatherers dropped, threw or planted some seeds in an area. When they returned the next season to gather, they found plants.*No record keeping*This discovery is known as the Neolithic Revolution or the Agricultural Revolution.
9 Farming Perfected…Some groups learned and practiced a technique in which they cut down trees or grasses and then burned them.*Slash and Burn*The ashes would fertilize the soil.After a year or two, farmers would move to another piece of land.They repeated the process after several years
10 DomesticationHunters’ knowledge of animals played a huge part in taming and training.Used animals as tools and foodThe earliest form domesticated animals:
11 The first Civilization Most historians believe that one of the first civilizations arose in SumerLocated in Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq)
13 Ur city? Ur was one of the earliest cities in Sumer. Sumer was a region in MesopotamiaModern day IraqNearly 5,000 years ago (*remember it’s 2009 right now), Ur was also a flourishing city in Sumer.Archaeologists have excavated the area and discovered:Evidence of using oxen to plowMud walls (meaning there were ancient “foremen” )Areas for artisans to tradeAreas for worship (meaning there was religion)city?
14 The Ziggurat is a temple still standing in Ur Means “Mountain of God”. 100 mud brick stairs lead to the topWho oversaw the construction?Either a Specialized Worker or the head of a Complex InstitutionThe temple was used for sacrificesGoats or sheepStored grains, fabrics, and gems for the Gods
15 Mesopotamia Means, “land between two rivers”. The Tigris riverThe Euphrates riverThe two rivers flooded Mesopotamia at least once a year.The flooding softened the soil, creating a thick bed of mud called silt.Farmers irrigated the silt and grew massive amounts of wheat.Surpluses of food brought in a greater population.
16 The SumeriansWere the first people to settle in the southern Mesopotamia.Sumerians (*You don’t have to copy this)Archaeologists believe that the Sumerians settled in 4500 B.C.THREE Challenges:Unpredictable floodingNo natural barriers for protection (defenseless villages)Limited natural resources
17 The Sumerians Are the first group of people to form a civilization Leaders planned projects and oversaw production.To provide water, they dug irrigation ditches that carried water to their farms.For defense, they built city wallsSumerians traded their goods for raw materials such as wood and stone.
18 Polytheism The Sumerians believed in many different Gods. Believed that many different Gods controlled the various forces of nature.An example: Enlil was the god of storms and air.Sumerians believed that their Gods fell in love, had children, and fought.Believed that humans were there servants.The Sumerians built ziggurats for them and offered rich sacrifices of animals.