Presentation on theme: "Resources And Development Resources: Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible,"— Presentation transcript:
Resources And Development Resources: Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as resources.
Classifications Of Resources Basis of origin: Biotic: These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.
Abiotic: All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources. For example, rocks and metals.
Basis of exhaustibility Renewable Resources: the resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources.
Non-Renewable Resources: These occurs over a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation.
Basis of ownership Individual Resources: These are owned by privately by individuals.
Community: These are resources which are accessible to all the members of the community.
National resources: Technically all the resources belong to the nation. The country has legal powers to acquire even private property or public good. For example road, canals, railways etc.
International Resources: The resources which are belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilise these without concurrence of international institutions'
Basis Of Stage Development Potential Resources: Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilized.
Developed Resources: Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilization.
Stock Resources: Materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these, are included among stock.
Resources Drawsback 1.Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals. 2.Accumulation of resources in few hands. 3.Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.
Sustainable Development Sustainable economic development means ‘ development should take place without damaging the environment and development in the present should not compromises with the needs of the future generations.’
Resource planning Planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources. It has importance in a country like India, which has enormous diversity in the availability of resources. There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources. There are some regions which can be considered self sufficient in terms of the availability of resources and there are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources. This calls for balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional and local levels. The availability of resources is a necessary condition for development of any region, but mere availability of resources in the absence of corresponding changes in technology and institutions may hinder development. There are many regions in our country that are rich resources but these are included in economically backward regions. On the contrary there are some regions which have poor resource base but they are economically developed.
Resource Planning In India Resource Planning In India 1.Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative estimation and measurement of the resources. 2.Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans. 3.Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
Resources are vital for any developmental activity. But irrational consumption and over-utilization of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems. To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various levels is important. Gandhiji was very apt in voicing his concern about resource conservation in these words. “There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed's.”
Plains 43% Net Sown Area (NSA) 54% of Plain. Mountains 30% Plateau 27%
Land resources are used for the following purposes : 1.Forests 2.Land not available for cultivation a) Barren and waste land b) Land put to non-agricultural uses. E.g. buildings, roads, factorie.etc. 3.Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land) a)Permanent pastures and grazing land. b)land under miscellaneous tree crop groves (not included sown area) c)cultural waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agriculture years ) 4.Fallow land a) fallow (left without cultivation for one or less than one agriculture years) b)other than current fallow (left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agriculture year) 5.Net sown area A sown more than once in an agriculture year plus net sown area as gross cropped area.
LAND USE PATTERN IN INDIA The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capacity and culture and traditional etc. Total geography area of India is 3.28 million sq. km land use data, however, is available only for 93% of total area because the land use reporting for most of the north east states expect Assam has not been done fully.
LAND DEGRADATION Degraded land in India 130 million hectares 28% forest degraded area 56% water eroded area 16% affected by saline and alkaline deposits
REMEDY OF LAND DEGRADATION Planting of shelter belt of plant Control of over gazing Stabilization sand dunes by growing thorny bushed Control of mining activities Proper discharge of industrial effluents and waste
SOIL AS A RESOURCES SOIL IS THE MOST INPORTANT RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOUCES. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different typed of living organisms on the earth.
Factor contributing to soil formation Change in temperature Action of running water Action of wind and glacier Activities of decomposers
Classification of soil in India Alluvial soil Black soil Red and Yellow soil Laterite soil Arid soil Forest soil
Alluvial soil Property Alluvial soil are very fertile. Mostly this soil contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal crop. SPREAD IN INDIA These have been deposited by river system the Indus,the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. Also found in eastern coastal plains. The deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Knavery river.
Types of alluvial soil Old alluvial soil New alluvial soil
Black soil (REGUR SOIL ) PROPERTY Black soil are made up of extremely fine clay. Their capacity is to hold moisture. They are rich in soil nutrients. They are poor in phosphoric content. They develop deep crack during hot weather, which helps in proper aeration of the soil. These soil are sticky. Spread in India Spread over north west Deccan pleatue, pleatue of Maharashtra, Saurashtra. In the upper Malawi, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and extent in the south west the south east direction along the Godavari an the Krishna. IDEAL CROP –cotton hence another name black cotton soil.
Red and yellow soil Property These soil have red color due to diffusion of iron in crystallive and metamorphic rock. It look yellow when its found in hydrated form Spread Parts of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plains and along the piedmont zone of the western Ghats.
Laterite soil Property Laterite has been derived from the Latin word, later ’ which means brick. the laterite soil develop in area which high temperature and heavy rainfall. Humus contain of the soil is low. Laterite soil are suitable for cultivation with adequate dose of measure and fertile. spread Varna taka, Verala, Tamil nadu, Madhya Pradesh and the hilly areas of Orissa and Assam. Crop after adopting appropriative soil conservation technique particular in the hilly area of Varnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, this soil is very use for growing tea and coffee.
Arid soil Arid soil range from red to brown in colour. They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. In some areas the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water. Due to dry climate, high temperature, evaporating is faster and the soil looks humus and moisture. The lower horizon of the soil are occupied by kankar because of the increasing calcium downwards. The kankar layer formations in the bottom horizon restrict the infiltration of water. After proper irrigation these soil become cultivable as has been in the case of western Rajasthan.
Forest soil These soil are found I n the hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rain forest are available. The soil texture varies according to the mountain environment where they are formed. They are fertile and silty. I valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes. In the snow covered area of Himalayas these soils experience denudation and are acidic with low valley particularly on the river terraces and alluvial fans are fertile.
Soil erosion means The soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion. The process of soil formation and erosion, go on simultaneously. Generally there is balancing between the two.
Causes of soil erosion Human activities like, deforestation, over grazing construction and mining. Defective method of farming Ploughing in wrong way. Sheet erosion Wind erosion